Due to technical aspects of Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT), the automatic methods for bone segmentation are not widely used in the clinical practice of endodontics, orthodontics, oral and maxillofacial surgery. The aim of this study was to evaluate method’s accuracy for bone segmentation in CBCT data sets. The sliding three dimensional (3D) window, histogram filter and Otsu’s method were used to implement the automatic segmentation. The results of automatic segmentation were compared with the results of segmentation performed by an experienced oral and maxillofacial surgeon. Twenty patients and their forty CBCT data sets were used in this study (20 preoperative and 20 postoperative). Intraclass Correlation Coefficients (ICC) were calculated to prove the reliability of surgeon segmentations. ICC was 0.958 with 95% confidence interval [0.896 ... 0.983] in preoperative data sets and 0.931 with 95% confidence interval [0.836 ... 0.972] in postoperative data sets. Three basic metrics were used in order to evaluate the accuracy of the automatic method—Dice Similarity Coefficient (DSC), Root Mean Square (RMS), Average Distance Error (ADE) of surfaces mismatch and additional metric in order to evaluate computation time of segmentation was used. The mean value of preoperative DSC was 0.921, postoperative—0.911, the mean value of preoperative RMS was 0.559 mm, postoperative—0.647 mm, the ADE value of preoperative cases was 0.043 mm, postoperative—0.057 mm, the mean computational time to perform the segmentation was 46 s. The automatic method showed clinically acceptable accuracy results and thus can be used as a new tool for automatic bone segmentation in CBCT data. It can be applied in oral and maxillofacial surgery for performance of 3D Virtual Surgical Plan (VSP) or for postoperative follow-up.
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