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Open AccessArticle

Use of CaO Loaded Mesoporous Alumina for Defluoridation of Potable Groundwater Containing Elevated Calcium Levels

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Moratuwa, Moratuwa 10400, Sri Lanka
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Environments 2019, 6(6), 66; https://doi.org/10.3390/environments6060066
Received: 6 April 2019 / Revised: 24 May 2019 / Accepted: 4 June 2019 / Published: 9 June 2019
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Abstract

Defluoridation in the presence of high calcium levels in potable groundwater is paramount, as the consumption of groundwater enriched with fluoride, and calcium has been implicated in causing chronic kidney disease of unknown etiology (CKDu) in Sri Lanka. CaO loaded mesoporous alumina (COMA) offers a great potential for defluoridation of potable water, but the effectiveness of COMA in the presence of calcium has not been investigated. This study, therefore, focuses on the investigation of the suitability of COMA for the defluoridation of potable water with high calcium levels. Mesoporous alumina was successfully functionalized with CaO to synthesize nano-level COMA with an optimum dosage for defluoridation being 2 g L−1. The amount of fluoride adsorbed increased (2.4–19.5 mg g−1) with the increase of the initial fluoride concentration (5–40 mg L−1), and the residual fluoride levels (0.8–1.47 mg L−1) were within the range specified by the WHO for drinking water. The amount of fluoride adsorbed by COMA varied between 6.50 and 7.97 mg g−1 with initial calcium levels between 0 and 1500 mg L−1, indicating that defluoridation was effective in the presence of high calcium levels. The fluoride adsorption was best fitted with the Langmuir model with a maximum monolayer capacity of COMA being 17.83 mg g−1, and adsorption kinetics fitted with the pseudo-2nd order model indicating strong covalent bonding by way of chemisorption. Thus, COMA can be effectively utilized as an adsorbent material in defluoridation efforts in areas prevalent with CKDu in the presence of high fluoride (15 mg L−1) and calcium (1500 mg L−1) levels. View Full-Text
Keywords: adsorption; CKDu; fluoride; hardness; isotherms and kinetic; nephrotoxic adsorption; CKDu; fluoride; hardness; isotherms and kinetic; nephrotoxic
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Jayaweera, M.; Sudasinghe, M.; Gunawardana, B.; Peiris, A.; Manatunge, J. Use of CaO Loaded Mesoporous Alumina for Defluoridation of Potable Groundwater Containing Elevated Calcium Levels. Environments 2019, 6, 66.

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