Next Article in Journal
Analysis of the Spatial–Temporal Variation of the Surface Ozone Concentration and Its Associated Meteorological Factors in Changchun
Previous Article in Journal
Aeration to Improve Biogas Production by Recalcitrant Feedstock
Article Menu
Issue 4 (April) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle

The Optimum Window-to-Wall Ratio in Office Buildings for Hot‒Humid, Hot‒Dry, and Cold Climates in Iran

Faculty of Arts and Architecture, Shiraz University, Shiraz 718773-35, Iran
School of Mechanical Engineering, Shiraz University, Shiraz 7196481334, Iran
Chair of Building Technology and Climate Responsive Design, Technical University of Munich, 80333 Munich, Germany
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Environments 2019, 6(4), 45;
Received: 2 February 2019 / Revised: 6 April 2019 / Accepted: 8 April 2019 / Published: 16 April 2019
PDF [2701 KB, uploaded 16 April 2019]
  |     |  


About half of the energy loss in buildings is wasted through windows. Determining the optimum window-to-wall ratio (WWR) for different building facades would reduce such energy losses. The optimum WWR is the window area that minimizes the total annual energy of cooling, heating, and lighting. The purpose of this study is to investigate the optimum WWR of different facades of an office building. For this purpose, a sample building is simulated by means of DesignBuilder software in order to investigate the annual solar heat gain, cooling load, heating load, and lighting consumption for the three cities of Bushehr, Shiraz, and Tabriz, and optimum window areas of office buildings for the three cities are determined. Based on the results, the optimum window area for the north building facade for all climates is 20–30%. This amount for the southern facade of the building in Bushehr, Shiraz, and Tabriz is, respectively, 20–30%, 10–30%, and 20–50%. The optimum window area for the eastern and western building facades in Bushehr is 30–50%; in Tabriz it is 40–70%, and in Shiraz it is 20–60% and 40–70%, respectively. The difference between the maximum and minimum energy consumption with different window areas in Bushehr and Shiraz is 20–100% and in Tabriz it is 16–25%. View Full-Text
Keywords: window-to-wall ratio (WWR); office; solar heat gain; climate; energy consumption window-to-wall ratio (WWR); office; solar heat gain; climate; energy consumption

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Shaeri, J.; Habibi, A.; Yaghoubi, M.; Chokhachian, A. The Optimum Window-to-Wall Ratio in Office Buildings for Hot‒Humid, Hot‒Dry, and Cold Climates in Iran. Environments 2019, 6, 45.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Environments EISSN 2076-3298 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top