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Environments 2018, 5(8), 89;

Healthcare Waste Management: A Case Study from Sudan

Faculty of Arts, Science and Technology, University of Northampton, Northampton NN2 7JD, UK
Department of Civil, Environmental, Architectural Engineering and Mathematics, University of Brescia, via Branze 43, 25123 Brescia, Italy
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 2 July 2018 / Revised: 23 July 2018 / Accepted: 27 July 2018 / Published: 5 August 2018
PDF [1456 KB, uploaded 6 August 2018]


Healthcare waste (HCW) represents a major public health issue, especially in developing countries. Among HCW categories, sharps waste is one of the most hazardous. Exposure to needle-stick injuries can lead to blood-borne pathogens, therefore HCW should be managed in an effective manner. The main aims of this study were to assess the current management of used needles and to suggest suitable recommendations for an improved and safer system for needle management in Khartoum, Sudan. The study showed that the management of both healthcare and home-generated HCW in Sudan is inefficient, as all wastes are mixed together and disposed of improperly, especially used needles. The study attributes this to many reasons, including lack of waste segregation at the source, lack of policies, failure of planning, inadequate training, lack of awareness of the hazardous nature of such kinds of waste, weak infrastructure, and a lack of suitable treatment technologies. The estimated average generated rate of HCW ranged from 0.38 to 0.87 kg/bed/day in 2009 and 2012, respectively. Such ineffective healthcare waste management HCWM, especially used needles, can put public health as well as the environment at risk, particularly waste workers, thus urgent action needs to be taken by all involved parties and at all levels. View Full-Text
Keywords: Khartoum; healthcare waste; needle-stick injuries; waste workers Khartoum; healthcare waste; needle-stick injuries; waste workers

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Hassan, A.A.; Tudor, T.; Vaccari, M. Healthcare Waste Management: A Case Study from Sudan. Environments 2018, 5, 89.

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