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Environments 2017, 4(4), 84;

Ammonia Oxidizing Archaea and Bacteria in East Asian Paddy Soils—A Mini Review

Department of Bioenvironmental Systems Engineering, National Taiwan University, No. 1, Sec. 4, Roosevelt Road, Taipei 10617, Taiwan
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 24 August 2017 / Revised: 12 November 2017 / Accepted: 15 November 2017 / Published: 18 November 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Soil and Water Contamination, Remediation and Conservation)
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Ammonia oxidation is crucial in nitrogen removal and global nitrogen dynamics since it is the first step of the nitrification process. In this review, we focus on the distribution and community structure of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) in East Asian paddy soils with variable soil properties. The available East Asian paddy soil data shows that the ammonium concentration and pH ranges from 0.4 to 370 mg/kg and 5.1 to 8.2, respectively. Our meta-analysis suggest that AOA specific gene sequences are generally more abundant than those of AOB in both acidic and alkaline paddy soils, where Nitrosophaera and Nitrosospira amoA clusters mainly dominate the microbial community, respectively. In addition, the contribution of ammonia oxidizers to the nitrification process has been demonstrated using DNA-SIP (DNA-based stable-isotope probing); the results of these studies indicate that pH is the most important factor in niche separation of AOA and AOB under a variety of edaphic conditions. Finally, we discuss a number of other environmental variables that affect the abundance, distribution, and activity of AOA and AOB in East Asian paddy soils. View Full-Text
Keywords: ammonia-oxidizing archaea; ammonia-oxidizing bacteria; paddy; nitrification ammonia-oxidizing archaea; ammonia-oxidizing bacteria; paddy; nitrification

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Mukhtar, H.; Lin, Y.-P.; Anthony, J. Ammonia Oxidizing Archaea and Bacteria in East Asian Paddy Soils—A Mini Review. Environments 2017, 4, 84.

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