Next Article in Journal
Households’ Willingness to Pay for Improved Waste Collection Service in Gorkha Municipality of Nepal
Previous Article in Journal
In the Dark Shadow of the Supercycle Tailings Failure Risk & Public Liability Reach All Time Highs
Article Menu
Issue 4 (December) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Environments 2017, 4(4), 76; https://doi.org/10.3390/environments4040076

Quantifying Dustiness, Specific Allergens, and Endotoxin in Bulk Soya Imports

1
Health and Safety Executive, Buxton SK17 9JN, UK
2
Pneumology Research Group, VHIR-Vall d’Hebron Institut de Recerca, Hospital Vall d’Hebron, Passeig de la Vall d’Hebron, 119-129, 08035 Barcelona, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 6 October 2017 / Revised: 28 October 2017 / Accepted: 1 November 2017 / Published: 2 November 2017
Full-Text   |   PDF [1261 KB, uploaded 2 November 2017]   |  

Abstract

Soya is an important bulk agricultural product often transported by sea as chipped beans and/or the bean husks after pelletisation. There are proven allergens in both forms. Bulk handling of soya imports can generate air pollution containing dust, allergens, and pyrogens, posing health risks to dockside workers and surrounding populations. Using an International Organization for Standardization (ISO) standardised rotating drum dustiness test in seven imported soya bulks, we compared the generated levels of dust and two major soya allergens in three particle sizes related to respiratory health. Extractable levels of allergen and endotoxin from the bulks showed 30–60 fold differences, with levels of one allergen (hydrophobic seed protein) and endotoxin higher in husk. The generated levels of dust and allergens in the three particle sizes also showed very wide variations between bulks, with aerolysed levels of allergen influenced by both the inherent dustiness and the extractable allergen in each bulk. Percentage allergen aerolysed from pelletized husk—often assumed to be of low dustiness—after transportation was not lower than that from chipped beans. Thus, not all soya bulks pose the same inhalation health risk and reinforces the importance of controlling dust generation from handling all soya bulk to as low as reasonably practicable. View Full-Text
Keywords: soya; biological dusts; organic dusts; aeroallergens; allergic asthma; atmospheric pollution soya; biological dusts; organic dusts; aeroallergens; allergic asthma; atmospheric pollution
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Mason, H.J.; Gómez-Ollés, S.; Cruz, M.-J.; Roberts, P.; Thorpe, A.; Evans, G. Quantifying Dustiness, Specific Allergens, and Endotoxin in Bulk Soya Imports. Environments 2017, 4, 76.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Environments EISSN 2076-3298 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top