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Does Growing up in Urban Compared to Rural Areas Shape Primary Emotional Traits?

Levels of Nature and Stress Response

by 1,* and 2
School of Public Health, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405, USA
School of Kinesiology and Recreation, Illinois State University, Normal, IL 61790, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Behav. Sci. 2018, 8(5), 49;
Received: 2 May 2018 / Revised: 9 May 2018 / Accepted: 14 May 2018 / Published: 17 May 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Effects of Natural Environments on Human Health)
A growing number of studies have shown that visiting green spaces and being exposed to natural environments can reduce psychological stress. A number of questions concerning the effects of natural environments on levels of stress remain including, “Are activities engaged in natural environments more or less beneficial at reducing stress when compared to those done in more urban settings?” This study examined this question from the perspective of “levels of nature”. That is, data on levels of stress were collected from three sites, one site having wilderness-like characteristics, a second site representing a municipal-type park, and a third site representing a built environment (indoor exercise facility) within a city. Data were generated using biophysical markers (cortisol and amylase) and a psychological measure within a pre- and post-visit format. Findings suggest that visiting natural environments can be beneficial in reducing both physical and psychological stress levels, with visitors to a natural environment reporting significantly lower levels of stress than their counterparts visiting a more urbanized outdoor setting or indoor exercise facility. View Full-Text
Keywords: biomarkers; human health; natural environments; psychological stress biomarkers; human health; natural environments; psychological stress
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ewert, A.; Chang, Y. Levels of Nature and Stress Response. Behav. Sci. 2018, 8, 49.

AMA Style

Ewert A, Chang Y. Levels of Nature and Stress Response. Behavioral Sciences. 2018; 8(5):49.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ewert, Alan, and Yun Chang. 2018. "Levels of Nature and Stress Response" Behavioral Sciences 8, no. 5: 49.

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