How the human brain works is still a question, as is its implication with brain architecture: the non-trivial structure–function relationship. The main hypothesis is that the anatomic architecture conditions, but does not determine, the neural network dynamic. The functional connectivity cannot be explained only considering the anatomical substrate. This involves complex and controversial aspects of the neuroscience field and that the methods and methodologies to obtain structural and functional connectivity are not always rigorously applied. The goal of the present article is to discuss about the progress made to elucidate the structure–function relationship of the Central Nervous System, particularly at the brain level, based on results from human and animal studies. The current novel systems and neuroimaging techniques with high resolutive physio-structural capacity have brought about the development of an integral framework of different structural and morphometric tools such as image processing, computational modeling and graph theory. Different laboratories have contributed with in vivo, in vitro and computational/mathematical models to study the intrinsic neural activity patterns based on anatomical connections. We conclude that multi-modal techniques of neuroimaging are required such as an improvement on methodologies for obtaining structural and functional connectivity. Even though simulations of the intrinsic neural activity based on anatomical connectivity can reproduce much of the observed patterns of empirical functional connectivity, future models should be multifactorial to elucidate multi-scale relationships and to infer disorder mechanisms.
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