Next Article in Journal
An Individual’s Connection to Nature Can Affect Perceived Restorativeness of Natural Environments. Some Observations about Biophilia
Next Article in Special Issue
What We Know About the Brain Structure–Function Relationship
Previous Article in Journal
Humans’ Relationship to Flowers as an Example of the Multiple Components of Embodied Aesthetics
Previous Article in Special Issue
Neuroprotective Effects of neuroEPO Using an In Vitro Model of Stroke
Open AccessFeature PaperArticle

Age-Related Changes in the Behavior of Apolipoprotein E Knockout Mice

National Center for Laboratory Animal Breeding (CENPALAB), Calle 3ra N° 40759 entre 6ta y Carretera Tirabeque, Reparto La Unión, Boyeros, La Habana 10800, Cuba
National Center for Bioproducts (BIOCEN), Carretera de Beltrán, Km. 1 1/2, Bejucal 32600, Mayabeque, Cuba
Institute for Marine Sciences (ICIMAR), Calle Loma entre 35 y 37, Plaza de la Revolución, La Habana 10400, Cuba
Center for Neurosciences (CNEURO), Ave. 25 y 158 No. 15202, Cubanacán, Playa, La Habana 11300, Cuba
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Behav. Sci. 2018, 8(3), 33;
Received: 28 November 2017 / Revised: 21 February 2018 / Accepted: 26 February 2018 / Published: 3 March 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State of Art in Non-Clinical Models for Neurodegenerative Diseases)
The knockout mouse model, B6.129P2-Apoetm1Unc is homozygotic for the Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) deletion; thus, it is capable of developing hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis but ApoE is also a lipid-transport protein abundantly expressed in most neurons in the central nervous system, so these animals could also be models of neurodegenerative diseases. The aim of this study was to determine age-related changes in spontaneous behavior and in learning and memory of Apolipoprotein E knockout mice. Spontaneous behavioral measurements included sleeping pattern, motor coordination and balance by rotarod and open field activity, whereas learning and memory tests included forced alternation in Y-maze, novel object recognition and passive avoidance conditioning. Significant behavioral differences between aged knockout mice and age-matched wild type strain, C57Bl/6 were found in all the behavioral tests, except for the rotarod test. Genetically’ modified mice exhibited less huddling contact during sleeping, decreased locomotor activity in novel environments and in learning and memory deficits. These results are consistent with the cognitive impairment and memory loss seen as the earliest clinical symptoms in neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease. The ApoE knockout mice might therefore be an appropriate model for studying the underlying mechanisms involved in behavioral changes caused by neurodegenerative diseases as well as for evaluating new therapies for these pathologies. View Full-Text
Keywords: aging; ApoE; behavior; mice; neurodegenerative disorder aging; ApoE; behavior; mice; neurodegenerative disorder
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Fuentes, D.; Fernández, N.; García, Y.; García, T.; Morales, A.R.; Menéndez, R. Age-Related Changes in the Behavior of Apolipoprotein E Knockout Mice. Behav. Sci. 2018, 8, 33.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map

Back to TopTop