The search for rational treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders began with the discovery of chlorpromazine in 1951 and continues to evolve. Day by day, new details of the intestinal microbiota–brain axis are coming to light. As the role of microbiota in the etiopathogenesis of neuropsychiatric disorders is more clearly understood, microbiota-based (or as we propose, “fecomodulation”) treatment options are increasingly discussed in the context of treatment. Although their history dates back to ancient times, the importance of psychobiotics and fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has only recently been recognized. Despite there being few preclinical and clinical studies, the evidence gathered to this point suggests that consideration of the microbiome in the treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders represents an area of significant therapeutic potential. It is increasingly hoped that such treatment options will be more reliable in terms of their side effects, cost, and ease of implementation. However, there remains much to be researched. Questions will be answered through germ-free animal experiments and randomized controlled trials. In this article, the therapeutic potential of microbiota-based options in the treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders is discussed in light of recent research.
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