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Open AccessArticle

OK-432 Administration Inhibits Murine Allergic Rhinitis at the Induction Phase, through the Macrophage Activation with TLR2 Signaling Pathway

1
Department of Otorhinolaryngology, School of Medicine, Shimane University, 89-1 Enya-cho, Izumo, Shimane Prefecture 693-8501, Japan
2
Department of Experimental Animals Center for Integrated Research in Science, Shimane University, 89-1 Enya-cho, Izumo, Shimane Prefecture 693-8501, Japan
3
Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, University Hospital of Crete, 711 10 Heraklion, Greece
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Med. Sci. 2018, 6(4), 107; https://doi.org/10.3390/medsci6040107
Received: 25 July 2018 / Revised: 5 November 2018 / Accepted: 5 November 2018 / Published: 26 November 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Allergic Rhinitis: Epidemiology, Prevention and Management)
OK-432, a preparation of a low-virulence strain (Su) of Streptococcus pyogenes (Group A) killed by a penicillin and lyophilized, is a stiff inducer of Th1 cytokines, and exerts anti-cancer effects in tumor-bearing mice. OK-432 has been reported to consist of many bacterial components, such as peptidoglycan, M-protein, etc. However, it is yet to be ascertained which bacterial component induces T helper 1 (Th1) responses. For the last decade, Toll-like receptor (TLR) family proteins are well elucidated to play a role in recognizing bacterial components and inducing interleukin (IL)-12 from macrophages. Above all, peptidoglycan seems to be the agonist of TLR2 rather than the obverse. In our present study, the role of TLR2 for the recognition of OK-432 by macrophages and the effects of OK-432 are examined on murine allergic rhinitis model. Interestingly, results show IL-12 production by macrophages derived from TLR2 knock-out (ko) mice was significantly decreased, in comparison with that of macrophages derived from wild-type mice. Moreover, in TLR2 ko mice, no regulatory effect of OK-432 was observed on an allergic rhinitis model. These data indicate that TLR2 signaling is involved in regulating OK-432-induced anti-T helper 2 (Th2) immunity, and may offer a new prophylactic and therapeutic approach using OK-432 to downregulate allergic disorders, such as allergic rhinitis. View Full-Text
Keywords: OK-432; TLR2; allergic rhinitis; macrophage OK-432; TLR2; allergic rhinitis; macrophage
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Aoi, N.; Morikura, I.; Fuchiwaki, T.; Yamada, T.; Prokopakis, E.; Kawauchi, H. OK-432 Administration Inhibits Murine Allergic Rhinitis at the Induction Phase, through the Macrophage Activation with TLR2 Signaling Pathway. Med. Sci. 2018, 6, 107.

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