Next Article in Journal
Combined Close Range Photogrammetry and Terrestrial Laser Scanning for Ship Hull Modelling
Next Article in Special Issue
Follow the High Subcritical Water
Previous Article in Journal
Composite Anchors for Slope Stabilisation: Monitoring of their In-Situ Behaviour with Optical Fibre
Previous Article in Special Issue
Stress-Tolerance and Taxonomy of Culturable Bacterial Communities Isolated from a Central Mojave Desert Soil Sample
Review

Viroids-First—A Model for Life on Earth, Mars and Exoplanets

by 1,2,* and 3,*
1
Institute of Medical Microbiology, University of Zurich, 8006 Zurich, Switzerland
2
Max Planck Institute for Molecular Genetics, 14195 Berlin, Germany
3
Department of Microbiology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY 10029, USA
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Geosciences 2019, 9(5), 241; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences9050241
Received: 13 April 2019 / Revised: 15 May 2019 / Accepted: 22 May 2019 / Published: 25 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Planetary Evolution and Search for Life on Habitable Planets)
The search for extraterrestrial life, recently fueled by the discovery of exoplanets, requires defined biosignatures. Current biomarkers include those of extremophilic organisms, typically archaea. Yet these cellular organisms are highly complex, which makes it unlikely that similar life forms evolved on other planets. Earlier forms of life on Earth may serve as better models for extraterrestrial life. On modern Earth, the simplest and most abundant biological entities are viroids and viruses that exert many properties of life, such as the abilities to replicate and undergo Darwinian evolution. Viroids have virus-like features, and are related to ribozymes, consisting solely of non-coding RNA, and may serve as more universal models for early life than do cellular life forms. Among the various proposed concepts, such as “proteins-first” or “metabolism-first”, we think that “viruses-first” can be specified to “viroids-first” as the most likely scenario for the emergence of life on Earth, and possibly elsewhere. With this article we intend to inspire the integration of virus research and the biosignatures of viroids and viruses into the search for extraterrestrial life. View Full-Text
Keywords: origin of life; ribozyme; RNA world; evolution; Spiegelman‘s Monster; meteorites; endosymbiosis; quasispecies; retroviruses; giant viruses origin of life; ribozyme; RNA world; evolution; Spiegelman‘s Monster; meteorites; endosymbiosis; quasispecies; retroviruses; giant viruses
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Moelling, K.; Broecker, F. Viroids-First—A Model for Life on Earth, Mars and Exoplanets. Geosciences 2019, 9, 241. https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences9050241

AMA Style

Moelling K, Broecker F. Viroids-First—A Model for Life on Earth, Mars and Exoplanets. Geosciences. 2019; 9(5):241. https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences9050241

Chicago/Turabian Style

Moelling, Karin; Broecker, Felix. 2019. "Viroids-First—A Model for Life on Earth, Mars and Exoplanets" Geosciences 9, no. 5: 241. https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences9050241

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Search more from Scilit
 
Search
Back to TopTop