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The Noise Properties and Velocities from a Time-Series of Estonian Permanent GNSS Stations

Chair of Geomatics, Estonian University of Life Sciences, Fr. R. Kreutzwaldi 5, 51006 Tartu, Estonia
Estonian Land Board, Mustamäe tee 51, 10621 Tallinn, Estonia
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Geosciences 2019, 9(5), 233;
Received: 9 April 2019 / Revised: 15 May 2019 / Accepted: 16 May 2019 / Published: 21 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geodesy and Geomatics Engineering)
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The aim of this study was to estimate the noise properties, velocities, and their uncertainties from a time-series of selected (~9 years long) Estonian continuously operating Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) stations. Two software packages based on different processing methods, Gipsy–Oasis and Bernese, were used for daily coordinate calculations. Different methods and software (Tsview, Hector, and MIDAS) were used for coordinate time-series analysis. Outliers were removed using three different strategies. Six different stochastic noise models were used for trend estimation altogether with the analysis of the noise properties of the residual time-series with Hector. Obtained velocities were compared with different land uplift and glacial isostatic adjustment models (e.g., ICE-6G (VM5a), NKG2016LU, etc.). All compared solutions showed similar fit to the compared models. It was confirmed that the best fit to the time-series residuals were with the flicker noise plus white noise model (for the North and East component) and generalized Gauss–Markov model (for Up). Velocities from MIDAS, Tsview, and Hector solutions within the same time-series (Gipsy–Oasis or Bernese) agreed well but velocity uncertainties differed up to four times. The smallest uncertainties were obtained from Tsview; the MIDAS solution produced the most conservative values. Although the East and Up component velocities between Gipsy and Bernese solutions agreed well, the North component velocities were systematically shifted. View Full-Text
Keywords: GNSS; time-series analysis; noise properties; velocities; GIA models GNSS; time-series analysis; noise properties; velocities; GIA models

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Kall, T.; Oja, T.; Kollo, K.; Liibusk, A. The Noise Properties and Velocities from a Time-Series of Estonian Permanent GNSS Stations. Geosciences 2019, 9, 233.

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