Sub-Antarctic Auckland Islands Seafloor Mapping Investigations Using Legacy Data
- Charted depths are referenced to Chart Datum (CD) (approximately Lowest Astronomical Tide (LAT)) while heights are above Mean High Water Springs (MHWS) [23,24]. Maps created for other purposes may use Mean Sea Level (MSL), ellipsoidal heights (when using Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS)), or a self-generated reference, and, in our experience, published seafloor maps often fail to specify any datum at all. Offsets between datums will be large in areas with large tidal ranges. Depths on products prior to chart publication - such as fairsheets - are usually on a Sounding Datum (SD) derived by the field surveyor. It may or may not be the same as CD [23,24].
- The precision of depths indicated on charts is standardized. In New Zealand, LINZ requires one decimal place display for depths of 0.1–30.9m (e.g., 5.68 becomes 5.6), and integer values for depths greater than 31m. Drying heights are rounded up to the nearest decimeter [23,24]. Depth data collected for charts may be manually cleaned, filtered, or processed with algorithms, such as the Combined Uncertainty Bathymetric Estimator (CUBE) [23,24,25,26,27].
- Because of the legal and risk management implications of charted data, all field measurements are well calibrated with horizontal and vertical uncertainties quantified and field checks undertaken. Hydrographers collecting data for nautical charts will meet IHO s-44 standards as a minimum . In New Zealand, LINZ has refined these in their Contract Specifications for Hydrographic Surveys (HYSPEC) [23,24], which provides a useful guide for users of New Zealand chart data as readers will see every element of data collection laid out.
3. Materials and Methods
- Visual analysis: Georeferenced charts, multibeam geotiff, and fairsheets were all imported for initial examination of data and display attributes. This included identification of changes between charted epochs, comparison of differences between the chart products and other depth data, and consideration of the vertical datums of each.
- Bathymetric analysis: Here, we focus on Norman and Hanfield Inlets, an area of geologic interest [14, 18] covered by chart data from both epochs. Depths from fairsheet 2862-25 were digitized manually in ArcMap at the centroid of each value posting. Contours were digitized as polylines following the fairsheet contour. Location errors are estimated to be ±3.5 m and ±2.5 m, respectively, using the line widths and resolution of map elements. Both were processed with the ArcMap Spline with Barriers function at 3 m (the sonar footprint given at a depth of 10 m in Report HI 158) to create a depth raster. Slope (for each cell), ruggedness (Vector Ruggedness Measure (VRM) in neighborhood of 5), and aspect (downslope direction of maximum date of change in each cell) were calculated using the Benthic Terrain Modeler (BTM) v.3  for both epochs.
- Ancillary data: Bottom sample and other chart data were digitized from the two versions of NZ2862 with the modern sample records checked against those in Report HS42. Sample characteristics from the charts and reports were classified for rendering as a habitat map using the following: Rock, gravel, pebbles, coral, shells, broken shells, coarse sand, sand, fine sand, and mud, with samples described using multiple classes given an average value. The resulting data were gridded using an Inverse Distance Weighting (IDW) function and a 100 m cell size.
4.1. Visual Analysis
4.2. Bathymetric Analysis
4.3. Ancillary Information
Conflicts of Interest
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|Item||Data Source||Chart Data Collection Dates (Surveyors)||Published Chart Edition Date|
|Chart NZ2862||LDS 1||1840–1991 2||2005|
|Fairsheet 2862-25 3||LDS request 1||1991 (RNZN 4)||1991|
|Report HI 158||LINZ request||1991 (RNZN)||1991|
|Chart NZ2862 (Figure 2)||LDS 1||1980–2015||2017|
|Processed bathymetric surface||LINZ request||2015 (iXSurvey/LINZ)||2015|
|Sheet Image HS42-STD-07-v2 3||LINZ request||2015 (iXSurvey/LINZ)||2015|
|Sheet Image HS42-STD-06-v2 3||LINZ request||2015 (iXSurvey/LINZ)||2015|
|Report HS42||LINZ request||2015 (IXSurvey/LINZ)||2015|
|Item||Pre-2015 ||Post-2015 |
|For data analysis|
|Time period of field survey||5–25 February 1991||14 January–28 March 2015|
|Completion of survey areas||Topography and texture descriptive section. 4 inlets complete, Norman and Musgrave for small craft navigation only. Approaches on shelf only.||Topography and texture descriptive section. Multibeam survey over 660 km2 survey area including northern and eastern inlets and Carnley Harbour, and section of eastern shelf. Singlebeam data collected at heads of some bays.|
|Geodetic control||Transverse Mercator WGS 72, Auckland Island Grid.||WGS84, UTM 58S|
|Positioning||Trisponder and GPS interface. Some theodolite transits used in steep areas.||Wide Area Differential GNSS (WADGNSS) Marinestar G2 and HP solutions|
|Tides and Sounding Datum||1x tide station. SD transferred from Bluff. Logship tide stream observations.||4x tide stations installed. SD recovered from previous work.Co-tidal model used. ADCP tide stream observations.|
|Bathymetry||Atlas Deso 20 singlebeam: 33 and 210 kHz. 3 m footprint in 10 m depth. Lines perpendicular to contours.||Konsberg 2040C multibeam swath at 4–6x water depth. Attitude and calibrations detailed. Odom/Atlas singlebeam.|
|Sampling||Dredge, none retained.||Shipek grab sampler, photographed, none retained. At heads of inlets and locations suitable for anchoring. 5 km spacing offshore.|
|Coastline||From aerial photo NZMS 270 1036/2. (260 series is 1:50,000)||From LINZ provided satellite imagery at 0.6 m resolution.|
|Calibrations||All calibrations listed.||All calibrations listed and detailed in other reports.|
|For future work|
|Weather conditions||Forecast valuable—rapid changes. Difficult to establish terrestrial survey network in low cloud and boggy peat.||Planning considered this would be extreme, but conditions were generally favorable with only 3 days of 73 lost to weather downtime. Calmer offshore in the mornings.|
|Bathymetry||Thick “Bull Kelp” growing “on all shoals of 20m or less” caused echosounder multipath and access difficulties.||Surveyors consulted high-resolution satellite images as part of their field planning. Kelp (Durvillaea Antarctica) “…thick and often impenetrable” up to 100 m off coast prevented measurements. Large swell created dangerous conditions beside the coast in exposed areas.|
|Tides||High water anomaly referred to in NP51 NZ Pilot observed.||Surveyed through kelp at mid-tide when patches were “tow(ed) under”.|
|Other observations||Safety considerations - all parties equipped for 3 days solo in field no matter how short task duration. Suitable landing sites listed.||Many coastline photos. Methods for working in kelp areas discussed.|
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Tidey, E.J.; Hulbe, C.L. Sub-Antarctic Auckland Islands Seafloor Mapping Investigations Using Legacy Data. Geosciences 2019, 9, 56. https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences9020056
Tidey EJ, Hulbe CL. Sub-Antarctic Auckland Islands Seafloor Mapping Investigations Using Legacy Data. Geosciences. 2019; 9(2):56. https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences9020056Chicago/Turabian Style
Tidey, Emily J., and Christina L. Hulbe. 2019. "Sub-Antarctic Auckland Islands Seafloor Mapping Investigations Using Legacy Data" Geosciences 9, no. 2: 56. https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences9020056