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Open AccessArticle

Ethical and Social Aspects of a Return to the Moon—A Geological Perspective

1
School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, The University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL, UK
2
Museum für Naturkunde, Leibniz-Institut für Evolutions-und Biodiversitätsforschung, Invalidenstraße 43, 10115 Berlin, Germany
3
Instituto Dom Luiz, Faculdade de Ciências, Universidade de Lisboa, 1749-016 Lisbon, Portugal
Geosciences 2019, 9(1), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences9010012
Received: 11 November 2018 / Revised: 8 December 2018 / Accepted: 19 December 2018 / Published: 26 December 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Lunar Studies)
The forward planning of the return of Humans to the lunar surface as envisioned by different national and collaborative space agencies requires consideration of the fragility and pristine nature of the lunar surface. Current international treaties are outdated and require immediate action for their update and amendment. This should be taken as an opportunity for self-reflection and potential censoring, enabling a mature, responsible, and iterated sequence of decisions prior to returning. The protocols developed for assessing the ethical and social impacts of Humans on the lunar surface will provide a blueprint for planning future exploration activities on other planetary bodies in the Solar System and beyond. View Full-Text
Keywords: Moon environment; protection and preservation; holistic planning; update international treaties; Moon as an entity; exploration ethics; exploration versus exploitation; ethics Moon environment; protection and preservation; holistic planning; update international treaties; Moon as an entity; exploration ethics; exploration versus exploitation; ethics
MDPI and ACS Style

Assis Fernandes, V. Ethical and Social Aspects of a Return to the Moon—A Geological Perspective. Geosciences 2019, 9, 12.

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