Next Article in Journal
Towards the Selection of an Optimal Global Geopotential Model for the Computation of the Long-Wavelength Contribution: A Case Study of Ghana
Next Article in Special Issue
Implementation of Tsunami Evacuation Maps at Setubal Municipality, Portugal
Previous Article in Journal / Special Issue
Possible Factors Promoting Car Evacuation in the 2011 Tohoku Tsunami Revealed by Analysing a Large-Scale Questionnaire Survey in Kesennuma City
Open AccessArticle

Influence of Flow Velocity on Tsunami Loss Estimation

Department of Civil Engineering, Queen’s School of Engineering, University of Bristol, Queen’s Building, University Walk, Bristol BS8 1TR, UK
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Geosciences 2017, 7(4), 114;
Received: 30 September 2017 / Revised: 28 October 2017 / Accepted: 1 November 2017 / Published: 7 November 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Interdisciplinary Geosciences Perspectives of Tsunami)
Inundation depth is commonly used as an intensity measure in tsunami fragility analysis. However, inundation depth cannot be taken as the sole representation of tsunami impact on structures, especially when structural damage is caused by hydrodynamic and debris impact forces that are mainly determined by flow velocity. To reflect the influence of flow velocity in addition to inundation depth in tsunami risk assessment, a tsunami loss estimation method that adopts both inundation depth and flow velocity (i.e., bivariate intensity measures) in evaluating tsunami damage is developed. To consider a wide range of possible tsunami inundation scenarios, Monte Carlo-based tsunami simulations are performed using stochastic earthquake slip distributions derived from a spectral synthesis method and probabilistic scaling relationships of earthquake source parameters. By focusing on Sendai (plain coast) and Onagawa (ria coast) in the Miyagi Prefecture of Japan in a case study, the stochastic tsunami loss is evaluated by total economic loss and its spatial distribution at different scales. The results indicate that tsunami loss prediction is highly sensitive to modelling resolution and inclusion of flow velocity for buildings located less than 1 km from the sea for Sendai and Onagawa of Miyagi Prefecture. View Full-Text
Keywords: stochastic tsunami simulation; tsunami loss; flow velocity; bivariate tsunami fragility function stochastic tsunami simulation; tsunami loss; flow velocity; bivariate tsunami fragility function
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Song, J.; De Risi, R.; Goda, K. Influence of Flow Velocity on Tsunami Loss Estimation. Geosciences 2017, 7, 114.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

  • Supplementary File 1:

    Supplementary (ZIP, 4449 KB)

  • Externally hosted supplementary file 1
    Description: Supplementary figures for colour-blinded readers
Back to TopTop