# Quantitative Examination of Piezoelectric/Seismoelectric Anomalies from Near-Surface Targets

## Abstract

**:**

## 1. Introduction

## 2. A Brief Background

^{−14}C/N (Coulomb/Newton).

## 3. Can Piezoelectric and Seismoelectric Effects Be Related to Potential Fields?

_{1}and ρ

_{2}are the instantaneous pressure values in the section under consideration; k is the coefficient calculating the dynamics of the elastic wave distribution, ε is the dielectric constant, ζ is the potential of the double electric layer, η is the solution viscosity, and σ is the conductivity.

_{0}is the coefficient of compressibility of the solid phase, $\alpha =\frac{{K}_{1}}{f}$ is the coefficient of permeability, r is the pore radius, f is the porosity, K

_{1}is the coefficient of permeability of the soil, ρ

_{2}is the true specific gravity of the pore moisture, K

_{2}is the coefficient of compressibility of the liquid phase, ω

_{0}is the propagation velocity of the longitudinal elastic wave, and u is the displacement.

## 4. Short Description of the Interpretation Methodology Developed in Magnetic Prospecting

- (1)
- Thin bed:$${A}_{e}=0.5{A}_{T}\cdot h,$$
_{e}is the piezoelectric moment, A_{T}is the total intensity of the piezoelectric (seismoelectric) anomaly, and h is the depth of the upper edge of a thin bed. - (2)
- HCC:$${A}_{e}={A}_{T}{h}_{c}^{2}/{k}_{m},\text{}\mathrm{where}\text{}{k}_{m}=\left(3\sqrt{3}/2\right)\mathrm{cos}\left({30}^{0}-\theta /3\right).$$
- (3)
- Thick bed:$${A}_{e}=\frac{{A}_{T}}{2{{k}^{\prime}}_{m}},$$
_{m}is determined from special relationships [48].

_{0}is the location of the source’s projection to plan relative to the extremum having the greatest magnitude, and ω

_{0}is the angle of the terrain relief inclination (ω

_{0}> 0 when the inclination is toward the positive direction of the x-axis).

## 5. Application of the Proposed Methodology: Field Cases

#### 5.1. Employment of the Interpretation Methodology in Ore Geophysics

#### 5.1.1. Gold-Bearing Quartz Deposit Ustnerinskoe (Eastern Yakutia, Russia)

_{m}was obtained from [43]) consists of ≈300 μV.

#### 5.1.2. Gold Quartz Deposit (Central Yakutia, Russia)

- d
_{1}= distance between the maximum and minimum of the anomaly; - d
_{2}= distance between the left and right branches at the level of semiamplitude; - d
_{3}= difference in abscissae of the points of intersection of an inclined tangent with horizontal tangents on one branch; - d
_{4}= the same on the other branch (d_{3}is selected from the plot branch with conjugated extremums, d_{3}≤ d_{4}), and the x-axis is oriented in this direction); - d
_{5}= distance between the middle point of the left and right tangents; - d
_{6}= distance between d_{3}and d_{4}; - d
_{7}= d_{3}+ d_{4}+ d_{6};

- d
_{8}= distance between the ending of parameter d_{4}and beginning of parameter d_{5}.

#### 5.1.3. Crystal-Quartz Deposit Pilengichey (Subpolar Ural, Russia)

^{2}, and for anomaly B—720 μV⋅m.

#### 5.2. Case Study at the Archaeological Site Tel Kara Hadid (Southern Israel)

## 6. Discussion and Conclusions

## Acknowledgments

## Conflicts of Interest

## References

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**Figure 1.**Prof. Naum Neishtadt, one of the founders of the piezoelectric method of geophysical prospecting (1927–2016).

**Figure 2.**Piezoelectric measurement array (after [14] with some modifications): (1) projection of the piezoactive body to the earth’s surface; (2) geophone; and (3) electrode.

**Figure 3.**Quantitative analysis of piezoelectric measurements at a gold-bearing quartz deposit Ustnerinskoe (Yakutia region, Russia) (initial geological-geophysical data from [14]): (1) deluvium; (2) limestone; (3) quartz-mica shales; (4) veined quartz; and (5) obtained parameters for the model of thick bed: (a) angle points; and (b) center of the anomalous body.

**Figure 4.**Quantitative examination of piezoelectric anomaly observed at one of gold-quartz deposits of Yakutia region (Russia) (initial geological-geophysical data from [30]: (1) soil-vegetation layer; (2) oxidized upper part of quartz vein; (3) quartz vein; (4) sandstone; (5) siltstone; and (6) determined position of the center of upper edge of anomalous body.

**Figure 5.**Quantitative analysis of piezoelectric anomaly in the crystal-quartz deposit Pilengichey of the Subpolar Ural (Russia) (initial geological-geophysical data from [30]. (1) ore-quartz zone; (2) host rocks, siltstone; results of quantitative examination ((3) and (4)): (3) position of the center of HCC inscribed to the upper part of the anomalous body; and (4) position of the center of upper edge of a thin bed.

**Figure 6.**Quantitative analysis of piezoelectric anomaly from gold-containing quartz vein (Tel Karra Hadid, southern Israel) (initial geological-geophysical data after [14]). Results of interpretation: (1) location of angle points of anomalous target; and (2) position of the center of the upper edge of anomalous target.

Piezoactivity Group | Rock/Ore/Mineral | D_{min}–D_{max} | D_{aver} |
---|---|---|---|

I | Quartz-tourmaline-cassiterite ore | 0.8–28.0 | 15.7 |

Antimonite-quartz ore | 0.2–1.35 | 0.6 | |

Apatite-nepheline ore | 0–5.0 | 0.9 | |

Galenite-sphalerite ore | 0.2–7.7 | 3.3 | |

Ijolite | 0.1–8 | 1.3 | |

II | Melteigite | 0.2–5.0 | 1.6 |

Pegmatite | 0.1–4.8 | 1.3 | |

Skarn with galenite-sphalerite mineralization | 0.1–3.0 | 0.6 | |

Sphalerite-galenite ore | 0.3–7.7 | 3.8 | |

Turjaite | 0.9–4.8 | 2.2 | |

Urtite | 0.1–32.5 | 3.4 | |

Juvite | 0.2–5.4 | 1.8 | |

III | Aleurolite silicificated | 0–0.5 | 0.2 |

Aplite | 0–1.7 | 0.6 | |

Breccia aleurolite-quartz | 0.1–0.4 | 0.2 | |

Gneiss | 0–1.4 | 0.3 | |

Granite | 0–1.6 | 0.4 | |

Granodiorite | 0–0.2 | 0.1 | |

Quartzite | 0–3.3 | 0.6 | |

Pegmatite ceramic | 0–1.0 | 0.1 | |

Sandstone silicificated and tourmalinised | 0.1–1.4 | 0.5 | |

Feldspars | 0–0.4 | 0.15 | |

Porphyrite | 0–0.3 | 0.1 | |

Ristschorrite | 0.3–0.9 | 0.5 | |

Schist argillaceous | 0–0.6 | 0.1 | |

Hornfels | 0–0.4 | 0.2 | |

Skarn sphaleritic-garnet | 0–1 | 0.3 | |

Skarn pyroxene-garnet | 0–0.2 | 0.1 | |

IV | Aleurolite, amphibolites, andesite, gabbro, greisens, diabase, sandstone | 0–0.1 | 0.05 |

Argillite, beresite, dacite, diorite-porphyrite, felsite-liparite, limestone, tuff, fenite | 0 | 0 |

^{−14}C/N; II (moderately active): piezo-activity of samples is (0.5–5.0) × 10

^{−14}C/N; III (weakly active): piezo-activity of samples is less than 0.5 × 10

^{−14}C/N; IV (non-active): piezo-activity of samples are near zero.

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Eppelbaum, L. Quantitative Examination of Piezoelectric/Seismoelectric Anomalies from Near-Surface Targets. *Geosciences* **2017**, *7*, 90.
https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences7030090

**AMA Style**

Eppelbaum L. Quantitative Examination of Piezoelectric/Seismoelectric Anomalies from Near-Surface Targets. *Geosciences*. 2017; 7(3):90.
https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences7030090

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Eppelbaum, Lev. 2017. "Quantitative Examination of Piezoelectric/Seismoelectric Anomalies from Near-Surface Targets" *Geosciences* 7, no. 3: 90.
https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences7030090