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Cadmium Pollution in the Tourism Environment: A Literature Review

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Department of Physical Geography, Ecology, and Nature Protection, Institute of Earth Sciences, Southern Federal University, Zorge Street 40, 344090 Rostov-on-Don, Russia
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K.G. Razumovsky Moscow State University of Technologies and Management (the First Cossack University), Zemlyanoy Val Street 73, 109004 Moscow, Russia
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Department of Hospitality Business, Higher School of Business, Southern Federal University, 23-ja Linija Street 43, 344019 Rostov-on-Don, Russia
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Department of Commodity Science and Expertise, Plekhanov Russian University of Economics, Stremyanny Lane 36, 117997 Moscow, Russia
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College of Earth Science and Engineering, Shandong University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266590, Shandong, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Geosciences 2020, 10(6), 242; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences10060242
Received: 12 May 2020 / Revised: 14 June 2020 / Accepted: 18 June 2020 / Published: 22 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Perspectives on Environment and Human Health)
Cadmium is a highly-toxic metal, and, its environmental occurrence and human exposure consequently deserve close attention. The insight into the relationships between cadmium and tourism relations has deepened during the past three decades and the research into this relationship is reviewed. For this purpose, 83 relevant publications (mainly articles in international journals) were analyzed. It was found that investigation of Cd in the tourism environment took place in all continents (except Antarctica) and has intensified since the mid-2000s; Chinese researchers are the most active contributors. The Cd occurrence in air, living organisms, sediments, soil, suspended particular matter, water, and of the human environment has been studied. It has become clear that tourism contributes to Cd pollution (particularly, by hotel wastewater and increased traffic), and, vice versa, Cd pollution of beaches, coastal waters, food, urban parks, etc. creates risks for tourists and increases human exposure to this toxic metal. Both mechanisms have received equal attention. Examples concern many places worldwide, with the Mediterranean and Central and Eastern Europe as apparently critical regions. Our significantly incomplete knowledge of the relationships between cadmium and tourism must be ascribed to the common oversimplification of these relationships and to the scarcity or even absence of information supplied by the most important tourist destinations. The present review demonstrates that more studies of heavy metals and, particularly, Cd in the tourism environment are needed. View Full-Text
Keywords: bibliographical survey; food; heavy metals; human exposure; pollution; research focus; tourist destinations bibliographical survey; food; heavy metals; human exposure; pollution; research focus; tourist destinations
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Mikhailenko, A.V.; Ruban, D.A.; Ermolaev, V.A.; van Loon, A.T. Cadmium Pollution in the Tourism Environment: A Literature Review. Geosciences 2020, 10, 242.

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