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Article

Leptin Gene Polymorphism in Goats Fed with Diet at Different Energy Level: Effects on Feed Intake, Milk Traits, Milk Fatty Acids Composition, and Metabolic State

1
Dipartimento di Agricoltura, Alimentazione e Ambiente (Di3A), University of Catania, Via Valdisavoia 5, 95123 Catania, Italy
2
Scuola di Scienze Agrarie, Forestali, Ambientali e Alimentari (SAFE), University of Basilicata, Viale dell’Ateneo Lucano 10, 85100 Potenza, Italy
3
Dipartimento di Scienze Agrarie, Alimentari e Ambientali, University of Perugia, Borgo XX Giugno 74, 06121 Perugia, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Animals 2019, 9(7), 424; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani9070424
Received: 29 May 2019 / Revised: 21 June 2019 / Accepted: 2 July 2019 / Published: 6 July 2019
In this study it has been highlighted the role of a leptin polymorphism on goat milk yield and quality and of its interaction with the energy content of the diet. Energy did not interfere with genotype effect. The studied leptin polymorphism increased healthy fatty acids in milk, thus representing a potential tool to improve functional characteristics of goat milk.
The study investigated the effects of a polymorphism at the LEP gene intron 1 microsatellite region and its interaction with diet energy level on feed intake, milk traits, milk fatty acid composition, and metabolic state in goats. Sixteen Girgentana lactating goats at mid-lactation, selected on the basis of their genotype (8 goats homozygous 266 bp/266 bp, L genotype; 8 goats heterozygous 266 bp/264 bp, H genotype), were fed ad libitum according to a change-over design, with two diets at different energy levels reached with different hay inclusion: low energy diet (LE)—100% of hay; and high energy diet (HE)—65% of hay. No differences in milk yield and composition or in dry matter intake were found between leptin genotypes or between diets. Leptin genotype had no effect on plasma metabolite concentrations. The differences between diets were recorded for plasma β-hydroxybutyric acid (BHBA) concentrations with higher (p = 0.01) values for the HE compared to the LE diet (0.44 vs. 0.24 mmol/L, respectively). Nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) values seem to indicate a positive energy balance in goats. No interaction genotype per diet was evident for most of the studied parameters. Fatty acid composition was strongly influenced by LEP genotype: L goats, compared to H goats, showed higher levels of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), and 14:1/14:0 desaturation index; lower levels of saturated fatty acids (SFA); and a more favorable atherogenic index. These results seem to suggest an improvement of health characteristics of milk with the L genotype. View Full-Text
Keywords: goats; leptin polymorphism; milk yield; blood metabolites; fatty acids goats; leptin polymorphism; milk yield; blood metabolites; fatty acids
MDPI and ACS Style

Avondo, M.; Di Trana, A.; Valenti, B.; Criscione, A.; Bordonaro, S.; De Angelis, A.; Giorgio, D.; Di Gregorio, P. Leptin Gene Polymorphism in Goats Fed with Diet at Different Energy Level: Effects on Feed Intake, Milk Traits, Milk Fatty Acids Composition, and Metabolic State. Animals 2019, 9, 424. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani9070424

AMA Style

Avondo M, Di Trana A, Valenti B, Criscione A, Bordonaro S, De Angelis A, Giorgio D, Di Gregorio P. Leptin Gene Polymorphism in Goats Fed with Diet at Different Energy Level: Effects on Feed Intake, Milk Traits, Milk Fatty Acids Composition, and Metabolic State. Animals. 2019; 9(7):424. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani9070424

Chicago/Turabian Style

Avondo, Marcella, Adriana Di Trana, Bernardo Valenti, Andrea Criscione, Salvatore Bordonaro, Anna De Angelis, Daniela Giorgio, and Paola Di Gregorio. 2019. "Leptin Gene Polymorphism in Goats Fed with Diet at Different Energy Level: Effects on Feed Intake, Milk Traits, Milk Fatty Acids Composition, and Metabolic State" Animals 9, no. 7: 424. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani9070424

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