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Open AccessArticle

The Translation and Validation of the Dutch Monash Dog–Owner Relationship Scale (MDORS)

Department of Animal in Science and Society, Utrecht University, 3584 CM Utrecht, The Netherlands
Department of IRAS Division EEPI & VPH, Utrecht University, 3548 GM Utrecht, The Netherlands
Department of Psychiatry, Leiden University Medical Centre, 2311 EZ Leiden, The Netherlands
Arq Psychotrauma Expert Groep, 112 XE Diemen, The Netherlands
Department of MGGZ, Ministry of Defence, 3584 EZ Utrecht, The Netherlands
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Animals 2019, 9(5), 249;
Received: 22 January 2019 / Revised: 18 April 2019 / Accepted: 13 May 2019 / Published: 16 May 2019
There are several questionnaires that can evaluate how humans view the relationship they have with their dog. One of those questionnaires is the Monash Dog–Owner Relationship Scale. This questionnaire was originally written for people who speak English. Therefore, it is less useful and also less reliable for people who do not speak English. Since we want the questionnaire to be useful and reliable in more than one language, we wanted to create a reliable translation. The language that we chose for the translation was Dutch. During our translation and reliability study, we found that several of the English questions did not translate well to Dutch. Some words could not be directly translated, and some questions were not interpreted by Dutch-speaking dog owners in the same way that the English questions were interpreted. However, most of the questions were well understood. Therefore, we conclude that a Dutch translation of the Monash Dog–Owner Relationship Scale questionnaire can be used reliably to question Dutch-speaking dog owners after a few adjustments have been made and some questions removed.
The Monash Dog–Owner Relationship Scale (MDORS) is a questionnaire that is used to evaluate the perceived relationship between humans and their dog. This questionnaire was originally only formulated and validated in English, which limits its use among non-English speaking individuals. Although a translation could be made, the translation of questionnaires without additional validation often impairs the reliability of that questionnaire. Therefore, the aim of this study was to validate a translation of the MDORS that is suitable for use among native Dutch speakers. To achieve this, a Dutch translation of the MDORS was made and checked for spelling/grammar mistakes, readability, feasibility, and clarity. A test–retest comparison was subsequently performed on the translation together with a calculation of Cronbach’s alpha score and principal component analysis (PCA). Through the PCA, we found that the three-factor model of the original MDORS was also largely present in the Dutch translation. However, deviations were also found, as several questions did not achieve high PCA scores in their original factor. Therefore, we propose that these questions are excluded from the Dutch MDORS. View Full-Text
Keywords: questionnaire; MDORS; dog; owner; human; relationship; translation; validation questionnaire; MDORS; dog; owner; human; relationship; translation; validation
MDPI and ACS Style

van Houtert, E.A.; Endenburg, N.; Wijnker, J.J.; Rodenburg, T.B.; van Lith, H.A.; Vermetten, E. The Translation and Validation of the Dutch Monash Dog–Owner Relationship Scale (MDORS). Animals 2019, 9, 249.

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