Future Directions for Personality Research: Contributing New Insights to the Understanding of Animal Behavior
Cognitive Ethology Laboratory, German Primate Center, Kellnerweg 4, 37077 Göttingen, Germany
Johann-Friedrich-Blumenbach Institute for Zoology and Anthropology, Georg-August-University, 37077 Göttingen, Germany
Leibniz ScienceCampus Primate Cognition, 37077 Göttingen, Germany
Department of Evolutionary Genetics, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Biology, 24306 Plön, Germany
Department of Food Safety and Infection Biology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, NO-0508 Oslo, Norway
Department of Biology, University of Turku, 20014 Turku, Finland
Department of Psychology, The University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH8 9JZ, UK
Center for Cognitive Ageing and Cognitive Epidemiology, The University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH8 9JZ, UK
Scottish Primate Research Group
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 25 March 2019 / Revised: 30 April 2019 / Accepted: 10 May 2019 / Published: 15 May 2019
Personality—i.e., individual differences in behavior and emotion—is increasingly being recognized as important in animal research. Whilst numerous studies highlight behavioral variation across a diverse range of species, an understanding of what drives this variation, and how it is maintained, is still limited. Moreover, applying the study of individual differences to issues such as stress coping and health outcomes could be hugely beneficial to animal welfare. We discuss these topics, along with promising avenues for future personality research, which should benefit a broader understanding of animal behavior.