Next Article in Journal
Differences in Pre-Laying Behavior between Floor-Laying and Nest-Laying Pekin Ducks
Previous Article in Journal
PDGFA in Cashmere Goat: A Motivation for the Hair Follicle Stem Cells to Activate
Article Menu
Issue 2 (February) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Animals 2019, 9(2), 39; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani9020039

Dietary Energy Levels Affect Growth Performance through Growth Hormone and Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1 in Yak (Bos grunniens)

1
Key Laboratory of Yak Breeding Engineering, Lanzhou Institute of Husbandry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Lanzhou 730050, China
2
State Key Laboratory of Pastoral Agricultural Ecosystem, College of Pastoral Agriculture Science and Technology, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730020, China
3
School of Life Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Received: 7 November 2018 / Revised: 18 January 2019 / Accepted: 24 January 2019 / Published: 28 January 2019
Full-Text   |   PDF [1310 KB, uploaded 28 January 2019]   |  

Simple Summary

Yak is always in a malnutrition condition under pure grazing in the cold season. Many studies have suggested that provision of supplementary feed to yak cannot only be an effective approach to avoid weight loss, but also improve productivity. Growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) could improve yak productivity. In current work, we evaluated the effects of different energy feedstuffs on the serum concentration of GH, IGF-1, and relative hepatic expression of their associated binding proteins and receptors, as well as growth performance of yak. The results indicated that average daily gain (ADG), body weight (BW), feed conversion ratio, serum IGF-1 concentration, and relative expression of IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 were increased with an increase in dietary energy level, while serum GH concentration and hepatic growth hormone (GHR) expression were decreased. Serum IGF-1 concentration, relative hepatic expression of IGF-1, and insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3) showed positive correlation with ADG, but serum GH concentration and GHR expression were negatively correlated with ADG. Yak offered with medium energy diet (NEg: 6.2 MJ/kg) displayed better growth by gaining 0.883 kg/d and showing a superior feed conversion ratio during experiment.

Abstract

The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of different dietary energy levels on serum concentrations of growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), as well as gene expression of their associated binding proteins and receptors in yak. Fifteen adult male yaks with BW of 276.1 ± 3.5 kg were allotted in three dietary groups and were fed with low (LE), medium (ME), and high energy (HE) level diet having different NEg of 5.5 MJ/kg, 6.2 MJ/kg, 6.9 MJ/kg, respectively. The effects of these treatments on ADG, BW, ADFI, and feed conversion ratio were significant (p < 0.05) throughout the experimental period. Serum GH concentration decreased (p < 0.05) with an increase in dietary energy level on d 30 and d 60. While IGF-1 concentration was higher (p < 0.05) in ME group, as compared to LE and HE groups on d 60. The expression level of growth hormone receptor (GHR) was decreased (p < 0.001) and IGF-1 was increased with the increase in the dietary energy level. The relative expression of insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3) was higher (p < 0.001) in ME and HE groups, except the LE group. In conclusion, our findings provide a first insight into the combined effect of GH and IGF-1 in controlling the metabolism and productivity of yak. It also showed that medium energy level diet contributed to promote growth performance of yak during the cold season. View Full-Text
Keywords: Yak; dietary energy level; growth performance; growth hormone (GH); insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) Yak; dietary energy level; growth performance; growth hormone (GH); insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1)
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Yang, C.; Zhang, J.; Ahmad, A.A.; Bao, P.; Guo, X.; Long, R.; Ding, X.; Yan, P. Dietary Energy Levels Affect Growth Performance through Growth Hormone and Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1 in Yak (Bos grunniens). Animals 2019, 9, 39.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Animals EISSN 2076-2615 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top