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The Pattern of Superficial Body Temperatures in Leisure Horses Lunged with Commonly Used Lunging Aids

1
Department of Animal Breeding, Faculty of Animal Science, Warsaw University of Life Sciences (WULS–SGGW), 02-787 Warsaw, Poland
2
Department of Large Animal Diseases with Clinic, Veterinary Research Centre and Center for Biomedical Research, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Warsaw University of Life Sciences (WULS–SGGW), 02-787 Warsaw, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Animals 2019, 9(12), 1095; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani9121095
Received: 1 October 2019 / Revised: 29 November 2019 / Accepted: 4 December 2019 / Published: 7 December 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Equids)
In the training of horses, special lunging aids may be used to regulate head and neck position during exercise without the intervention of a rider. The rubber band and triangle side reins and the chambon have an impact on thoracolumbar kinematics and the motion of the fore- and hindlimbs. Lunging aids are assumed to modulate the work of horses’ muscles, which results in altering the superficial thermographic patterns. Thermography is a non-invasive, contactless imaging technique based on detecting emitted infrared radiation representing the temperature of the body surface, influenced by muscle metabolism and blood circulation. Training sessions for 16 horses performed in the study included exercises at walk, freely active trot, and canter. Surface temperatures of 11 regions of interest were evaluated on all images, corresponding to areas influenced by neck fixation and engaging hindquarters. In conclusion, thermography was shown as a useful tool in lunging aids’ usefulness evaluation. Different types of lunging aids influence the mobility of horse neck and back and its choice for leisure horses lunging should be made individually. Lunging aids change the surface temperature of different body parts during the leisure horse work on the lunge.
Background: The natural head and neck position (HNP) of horses differs from the position in horse riding when bit is used. The special lunging aids (LAs) are applied in order to modify HNP. Different types of LAs have the potential to affect the work of horse muscles and the superficial thermographic patterns (STPs). The effects of thre LAs on STPs of neck, chest, back, and hindquarters were investigated. Methods: Sixteen leisure horses were lunged with freely moving head (FMH), rubber band (RB), chambon (CH), and triangle side reins (TRs). The thermographic images (n = 896) were analyzed before/after lunging for mean temperatures (Tmean) and minimum–maximum difference (Tdiff). Results: Superficial Tmean increased (p < 0.001) in cranial part of neck, back, thoracic area, and limbs after lunging regardless of LAs application or its type. In comparison to other LAs: With RB, Tmean was higher in regions of interest (ROIs) 2,7 and lower in ROIs 3–4 (p < 0.05); with CH, Tmean was higher in ROIs 2–4 and 7 (p < 0.01); and with TRs, Tmean was higher in ROIs 2–4,7,9–11 (p < 0.01). In ROIs 2–4 and 7, Tdiff was lower with LAs than with FMH (p < 0.01) and in ROIs 9–10 with TRs. Conclusions: The choice of LAs should be dictated by the expected effect; however, all LAs increase the quality of the leisure horse lunging. LA use is more desirable than lunging with FMH. View Full-Text
Keywords: rubber band; chambon; triangle side reins; lunging; head and neck position; leisure horses; thermography rubber band; chambon; triangle side reins; lunging; head and neck position; leisure horses; thermography
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MDPI and ACS Style

Maśko, M.; Zdrojkowski, L.; Domino, M.; Jasinski, T.; Gajewski, Z. The Pattern of Superficial Body Temperatures in Leisure Horses Lunged with Commonly Used Lunging Aids. Animals 2019, 9, 1095. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani9121095

AMA Style

Maśko M, Zdrojkowski L, Domino M, Jasinski T, Gajewski Z. The Pattern of Superficial Body Temperatures in Leisure Horses Lunged with Commonly Used Lunging Aids. Animals. 2019; 9(12):1095. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani9121095

Chicago/Turabian Style

Maśko, Malgorzata, Lukasz Zdrojkowski, Malgorzata Domino, Tomasz Jasinski, and Zdzislaw Gajewski. 2019. "The Pattern of Superficial Body Temperatures in Leisure Horses Lunged with Commonly Used Lunging Aids" Animals 9, no. 12: 1095. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani9121095

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