Age-Dependent Utilization of Shelters and Habitat in Two Reptile Species with Contrasting Intraspecific Interactions
Department of Geoinformatics and Cartography, Institute of Geography and Regional Development, University of Wroclaw, pl. Uniwersytecki 1, 50-137 Wrocław, Poland
NATRIX Herpetological Association, ul. Legnicka 65, 54-206 Wrocław, Poland
Institute of Environmental Sciences, Jagiellonian University, ul. Gronostajowa 7, 30-387 Kraków, Poland
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 23 September 2019 / Revised: 13 November 2019 / Accepted: 15 November 2019 / Published: 18 November 2019
Intraspecific interactions are known to affect habitat use in birds and mammals but their role in spatial ecology of reptiles is far less recognized. Our comparative study shows that species known to exhibit intraspecific predation (smooth snake Coronella austriaca) express clearly different patterns of habitat and shelter occupancy than a species with no such cannibalistic behavior (slow worm Anguis fragilis). Specifically, juvenile smooth snakes prefer sites and shelters not occupied by the adults, even despite suboptimal habitat conditions. We propose that such division indicates an avoidance of predation pressure set by larger individuals on the younger and smaller ones. On the contrary, in slow worms no tendency for intraspecific avoidance are observed, since specimens of different ages commonly share the same area and shelters. This points to higher flexibility in habitat use in slow worms, while the smooth snake population is spatially structured, with juveniles dispersed to the margins of the population range. For endangered smooth snakes, habitat conservation should therefore include a wide buffer zone to maintain the youngest fraction of the population. Future studies on habitat utilization in squamates needs to pay more attention to the social cues, a commonly overlooked aspect in the spatial ecology of reptiles.