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Animals 2018, 8(10), 172; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani8100172

N Balance Studies Emphasize the Superior Protein Quality of Pig Diets at High Inclusion Level of Algae Meal (Spirulina platensis) or Insect Meal (Hermetia illucens) when Adequate Amino Acid Supplementation Is Ensured

Department of Animal Sciences, Division Animal Nutrition Physiology, Georg-August-University of Goettingen, Kellnerweg 6, 37077 Goettingen, Germany
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Received: 6 September 2018 / Revised: 25 September 2018 / Accepted: 29 September 2018 / Published: 3 October 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Insects: Alternative Protein Source for Animal Feed)
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Simple Summary

This study aimed to evaluate diets with complete substitution of soybean meal (SBM) by an algae meal from Spirulina platensis (SM) or partly defatted larvae meal from Hermetia illucens (HM) as feed for piglets and growing pigs. Main feed ingredients of the experimental diets were wheat, barley, and SM or HM. The final diets contained 21% (piglets) and 13% (growing pigs) of SM or HM and nitrogen (N) balance studies were applied to measure parameters of apparent N digestibility, complex dietary protein quality, and individual amino acid (AA) efficiency according to the ‘Goettingen approach’. Diets were well accepted by the animals and an extended level of AA supplementation yielded improved dietary protein quality with both of the alternative feed proteins. However, HM based diets provided superior apparent N digestibility.

Abstract

Two age-dependent nitrogen (N) balance studies (average body mass 25 and 60 kg) utilized 16 male castrated piglets and 16 barrows to measure N utilization parameters of diets with complete substitution of SBM by alternative protein sources (SM, HM), but different AA fortifications. Lysine supplementation up to 80% of the recommended lysine (Lys) supply in diets HM (A) and SM (A) yielded similar protein quality data (63.6 ± 2.1 and 63.7 ± 3.4). Surprisingly, only in piglet diet HM (AA) did the extended AA supplementation (Lys, methionine (Met), threonine (Thr)) enhance protein quality (72.8 ± 6.7) significantly (p = 0.004). Similar trends were observed in growing pigs. However, when the level of histidine (His) in diet SM (AA) was increased, feed protein quality (71.8 ± 1.3) was significantly (p < 0.001) improved indicating the importance of adequate His supply in diets with a complete substitution of SBM by the algae meal (SM) under study. AA efficiency data extend the possibilities to explain the observed responses on protein quality. When an adequate AA balancing in the diet is guaranteed, from nutritional point of view both of the alternative proteins may replace SBM in pig diets. View Full-Text
Keywords: piglets; growing pigs; N balance; N utilization model; amino acids; protein quality; apparent N digestibility; amino acid efficiency piglets; growing pigs; N balance; N utilization model; amino acids; protein quality; apparent N digestibility; amino acid efficiency
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Neumann, C.; Velten, S.; Liebert, F. N Balance Studies Emphasize the Superior Protein Quality of Pig Diets at High Inclusion Level of Algae Meal (Spirulina platensis) or Insect Meal (Hermetia illucens) when Adequate Amino Acid Supplementation Is Ensured. Animals 2018, 8, 172.

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