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Research Tools for the Measurement of Pain and Nociception

Animal Welfare Science and Bioethics Centre, Institute of Veterinary, Animal and Biomedical Sciences, Massey University, Palmerston North 4474, New Zealand
Academic Editor: Clive J. C. Phillips
Animals 2016, 6(11), 71; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani6110071
Received: 28 September 2016 / Revised: 31 October 2016 / Accepted: 5 November 2016 / Published: 11 November 2016
There are many ways in which pain in animals can be measured and these are based on a variety of phenomena that are related to either the perception of pain or alterations in physical or behavioural features of the animal that are caused by that pain. The features of pain that are most useful for assessment in clinical environments are not always the best to use in a research environment. This is because the aims and objectives of the two settings are different and so whilst particular techniques will have the same advantages and disadvantages in clinical and research environments, these considerations may become more or less of a drawback when moving from one environment to the other. For example, a simple descriptive pain scale has a number of advantages and disadvantages. In a clinical setting the advantages are very useful and the disadvantages are less relevant, but in a research environment the advantages are less important and the disadvantages can become more problematic. This paper will focus on pain in the research environment and after a brief revision of the pathophysiological systems involved will attempt to outline the major advantages and disadvantages of the more commonly used measurement techniques that have been used for studies in the area of pain perception and analgesia. This paper is expanded from a conference proceedings paper presented at the International Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Conference in San Diego, USA. View Full-Text
Keywords: pain measurement; research techniques pain measurement; research techniques
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MDPI and ACS Style

Johnson, C. Research Tools for the Measurement of Pain and Nociception. Animals 2016, 6, 71. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani6110071

AMA Style

Johnson C. Research Tools for the Measurement of Pain and Nociception. Animals. 2016; 6(11):71. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani6110071

Chicago/Turabian Style

Johnson, Craig. 2016. "Research Tools for the Measurement of Pain and Nociception" Animals 6, no. 11: 71. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani6110071

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