Good Science, Good Sense and Good Sensibilities: The Three Ss of Carol Newton
Norecopa, c/o Norwegian Veterinary Institute, P.O. Box 750 Sentrum, Oslo 0106, Norway
Science Group, Research Animals Department, RSPCA, Wilberforce Way, Southwater, West Sussex RH13 9RS, UK
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Clive J. C. Phillips
Received: 29 August 2016 / Revised: 27 October 2016 / Accepted: 7 November 2016 / Published: 11 November 2016
The use of animals in research is controversial and there are ongoing efforts to refine and limit their use to an absolute minimum. The Three Rs principle developed by William M. S. Russell and Rex L. Burch in the UK in the 1950s is widely used for this purpose: Replacement, Reduction and Refinement. Another useful principle which complements the Three Rs was proposed by Carol Newton in the 1970s. This principle is the Three Ss: Good Science, Good Sense and Good Sensibilities. Unlike the Three Rs, the Three Ss have not been described in detail in the literature. The purpose of this paper is to increase awareness of the Three Ss, which are a useful supplement to the Three Rs, improving animal welfare and leading to better science.