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Article

Scoping Review on Risk Factors and Methods for the Prevention of Bovine Respiratory Disease Applicable to Cow–Calf Operations

1
Department of Population Health and Reproduction, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California Davis, Davis, CA 95616, USA
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Center for Immunology and Infectious Diseases, University of California Davis, Davis, CA 95616, USA
3
University Library, University of California Davis, Davis, CA 95616, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Irina Garcia Ispierto
Animals 2022, 12(3), 334; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12030334
Received: 31 December 2021 / Revised: 21 January 2022 / Accepted: 26 January 2022 / Published: 29 January 2022
(This article belongs to the Topic Animal Diseases in Agricultural Production Systems)
Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is common in cattle populations and has been named as one of three diseases where antibiotics are most frequently used in cow–calf operations in California. Antibiotics are typically used to treat or prevent the disease, but recent concerns about antibiotic resistance of pathogens in animals or spreading from animals to people have led to the call for more judicious use of these drugs. The present review summarizes the English scientific literature on articles about risk factors for the disease as well as ways to prevent BRD that are applicable to cow–calf operations. Numerous management and animal factors have been identified as increasing the risk for BRD. Vaccinations, metaphylactic use of antibiotics, and feed supplements are areas of research into the prevention of BRD. Genetics have also been explored to determine the heritability of BRD resistance. While vaccinations and metaphylactic use of antibiotics have been evaluated in multiple systematic reviews and meta-analyses, these types of summaries are missing for commonly studied feed supplements, such as yeast and trace minerals, and the use of nitric oxide releasing substance to prevent BRD. Further, it would be beneficial to summarize the knowledge on management related risk factors in literature reviews.
The presented scoping review summarizes the available research evidence and identifies gaps in knowledge for bovine respiratory disease (BRD) prevention. Published literature on BRD from 1990 to April 2021 was searched in online databases, including Medline, CAB Abstracts, Scopus, Biosis, and Searchable Proceedings of Animal Conferences. Citations were systematically evaluated in a three-stage approach using commercial software and summarized in a scoping review format. A total of 265 publications were included in this review with herd/farm management (27.9%) as the most prevalent factors studied, followed by metaphylaxis (24.5%), vaccinations (24.1%), diet formulations, and nutritional supplementations (17.7%), animal characteristics (10.2%), and less common interventions and risk factors (6.4%). A high proportion of studies under herd/farm management (73%), metaphylaxis (86%), vaccinations (70%), animal characteristics (78%), and less common interventions and risk factors (59%) showed either significant effects on reducing BRD morbidity or significant differences of BRD between treatments. However, diet and nutritional supplementations reduced BRD only in 30% of research publications. Most studies on BRD were performed in feedlot populations, and more studies in cow–calf populations are needed. We further suggest meta-analyses on the use of yeast and trace mineral supplementation, and nitric oxide-releasing solution for BRD prevention. View Full-Text
Keywords: bovine respiratory disease; prevention; risk factors; antimicrobial stewardship; shipping fever bovine respiratory disease; prevention; risk factors; antimicrobial stewardship; shipping fever
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    Description: Maier, G.; Chen, S.; Bernardino, P.N.; Fausak, E.D.; Van Noord, M. Protocol for a Scoping/Systematic Review: Scoping Review Prevention of Shipping Fever in cow-calf operations. 2020.
MDPI and ACS Style

Chen, S.-Y.; Negri Bernardino, P.; Fausak, E.; Van Noord, M.; Maier, G. Scoping Review on Risk Factors and Methods for the Prevention of Bovine Respiratory Disease Applicable to Cow–Calf Operations. Animals 2022, 12, 334. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12030334

AMA Style

Chen S-Y, Negri Bernardino P, Fausak E, Van Noord M, Maier G. Scoping Review on Risk Factors and Methods for the Prevention of Bovine Respiratory Disease Applicable to Cow–Calf Operations. Animals. 2022; 12(3):334. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12030334

Chicago/Turabian Style

Chen, Shih-Yu, Pedro Negri Bernardino, Erik Fausak, Megan Van Noord, and Gabriele Maier. 2022. "Scoping Review on Risk Factors and Methods for the Prevention of Bovine Respiratory Disease Applicable to Cow–Calf Operations" Animals 12, no. 3: 334. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12030334

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