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Article

Transcriptomic Response under Heat Stress in Chickens Revealed the Regulation of Genes and Alteration of Metabolism to Maintain Homeostasis

1
Division of Animal Genomics and Bioinformatics, National Institute of Animal Science, Wanju 55365, Korea
2
Animal Nutrition and Physiology Team, National Institute of Animal Science, Wanju 55365, Korea
3
Department of Agricultural Convergence Technology, Jeonbuk National University, Jeonju 54896, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally.
Academic Editor: Martino Cassandro
Animals 2021, 11(8), 2241; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11082241
Received: 5 July 2021 / Revised: 20 July 2021 / Accepted: 26 July 2021 / Published: 30 July 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Animals' Transcriptome Response to Environment Change)
With the increased global temperature, the threat from climate change has already affected the livestock industry. Exposure to heat stress is a major factor responsible for impacts on the overall livestock production, which ultimately results in economic losses. With no exception, poultry is among the most vulnerable livestock to environmental stress. Hence, a comprehensive study is required to understand the molecular mechanisms and to improve the breeding program to overcome economic losses. Therefore, we investigated growth related phenotypes and performed transcriptome analysis to understand the heat stress response in chickens. Animal experiments were designed with two groups, which were kept at 21 and 33 °C for 2 weeks as the control and treatment groups. The transcriptome analysis used blood samples from each chicken. In this study, we identified a total of 245 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) with important roles in various biological processes, such as cell protection, energy conversion in the mitochondria, and protein quality control. The results indicate that the heat stress environment regulates genes and alter the metabolism to adjust for the heat environment in chickens. These findings could be useful to help understand the heat stress response in poultry.
Chicken is important livestock that serves as a vital food source which remain largely affected by heat stress. Therefore, we performed the transcriptome analysis to help understand the mechanisms of heat stress response in chickens. In the animal experiments, we grouped them into a normal and severe at 21 and 33 °C, with identified physiologic parameters for 2-weeks. Subsequently, RNA-seq analysis was performed to identify DEGs with a false discovery rate < 0.05 and a fold change ≥ 1.5. In the physiological parameters, we observed average daily gain was declined, rectal temperature and respiration rate was increased in severe group. Among total 245 DEGs, 230 and 15 genes were upregulated and downregulated, respectively. In upregulated DEGs, HSPs, MYLK2, and BDKRB1 genes were identified as key genes in heat stress. The KEGG pathway analysis showed involvement in the ATP metabolic process, MAPK signaling pathway and calcium signaling pathway with related protein processing and synthesis. In conclusion, with induced heat stress, such changes in physiologic parameters alter the neuroendocrine system, and we observed that the heat stress environment regulates such Heat shock protein genes to protect the cells and proteins from an altered metabolism. These findings provide a more comprehensive understanding of the heat stress response in poultry. View Full-Text
Keywords: heat stress; chicken; MAPK signaling pathway; calcium signaling pathway; transcriptome analysis heat stress; chicken; MAPK signaling pathway; calcium signaling pathway; transcriptome analysis
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kim, H.; Kim, H.; Seong, P.; Arora, D.; Shin, D.; Park, W.; Park, J.-E. Transcriptomic Response under Heat Stress in Chickens Revealed the Regulation of Genes and Alteration of Metabolism to Maintain Homeostasis. Animals 2021, 11, 2241. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11082241

AMA Style

Kim H, Kim H, Seong P, Arora D, Shin D, Park W, Park J-E. Transcriptomic Response under Heat Stress in Chickens Revealed the Regulation of Genes and Alteration of Metabolism to Maintain Homeostasis. Animals. 2021; 11(8):2241. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11082241

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kim, Hana, Hyeran Kim, Pilnam Seong, Devender Arora, Donghyun Shin, Woncheoul Park, and Jong-Eun Park. 2021. "Transcriptomic Response under Heat Stress in Chickens Revealed the Regulation of Genes and Alteration of Metabolism to Maintain Homeostasis" Animals 11, no. 8: 2241. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11082241

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