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Article

Dietary Synbiotics Can Help Relieve the Impacts of Deltamethrin Toxicity of Nile Tilapia Reared at Low Temperatures

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Department of Anatomy and Embryology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Kafrelsheikh University, Kafr El Sheikh 33516, Egypt
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Department of Animal Wealth Development, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Kafrelsheikh University, Kafr El Sheikh 33516, Egypt
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Department of Fish Diseases and Management, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Kafrelsheikh University, Kafr El Sheikh 33516, Egypt
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Department of Fish Diseases and Management, Sakha Aquaculture Research Unit, Central Laboratory for Aquaculture Research, A.R.C., Kafr El Sheikh 33516, Egypt
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Department of Animal Production, Faculty of Agriculture, Kafrelsheikh University, Kafr El Sheikh 33516, Egypt
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Department of Biotechnology, College of Science, Taif University, P.O. Box 11099, Taif 21944, Saudi Arabia
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State Key Laboratory of Animal Genetics Breeding & Reproduction, College of Animal Science and Technology, Northwest A&F University, Yangling 712100, China
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Faculty of Desert Agriculture, King Salman International University, South Sinai 46618, Egypt
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Department of Animal Production, Faculty of Agriculture, Tanta University, Tanta 31527, Egypt
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Department of Animal and Aquatic Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200, Thailand
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Science and Technology Research Institute, Chiang Mai University, 239 Huay Keaw Rd., Suthep, Muang, Chiang Mai 50200, Thailand
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Antoni Ibarz, Marcelino Herrera and Luis Vargas-Chacoff
Animals 2021, 11(6), 1790; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11061790
Received: 21 April 2021 / Revised: 9 June 2021 / Accepted: 14 June 2021 / Published: 15 June 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Approaches to Fish Welfare)
The toxic impacts of pesticides and insecticides are strongly correlated with water temperature. Water temperature can increase or decrease the efficacy of toxins and their influence on aquatic organisms. An alternate approach to augmenting fish resistance to ambient deltamethrin (DMT) toxicity and low water temperature via synbiotic feeding was proposed. In this study, fish were allocated into four groups and kept at suboptimal water temperature (21 ± 2 °C): control, DMT, synbiotic, and DMT + synbiotic. The results illustrate that including synbiotics in the Nile tilapia diet stimulates the immunity and antioxidant systems in fish, enabling the fish reared at a suboptimal temperature to counteract the immunity suppression and oxidative stress caused by DMT exposure.
The optimal water temperature for the normal growth of Nile tilapia is between 26 and 28 °C, and the toxicity of pesticides is strongly related to water temperature. An alternate approach to augmenting the resistance of fish to ambient water toxicity and low water temperature via synbiotic feeding was proposed. In this study, fish were allocated into four groups with 10 fish in each replicate, where they were fed a basal diet or synbiotics (550 mg/kg) and kept at a suboptimal water temperature (21 ± 2 °C). The prepared diets were fed to Nile tilapia for 30 days with or without deltamethrin (DMT) ambient exposure (15 μg/L). The groups were named control (basal diet without DMT toxicity), DMT (basal diet with DMT toxicity), synbiotic (synbiotics without DMT toxicity), and DMT + synbiotic (synbiotics with DMT toxicity). The results displayed upregulated transcription of catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and interferon (IFN-γ) genes caused by DMT exposure and synbiotic feeding when compared with the controls. Moreover, HSP70 and CASP3 genes displayed increased transcription caused by DMT exposure without synbiotic feeding. However, fish fed with synbiotics showed downregulated HSP70 and CASP3 gene expressions. The transcription of IL-1β and IL-8 genes were also decreased by DMT exposure, while fish fed synbiotics showed upregulated levels. DMT exposure resulted in irregular histopathological features in gills, intestine, spleen, and liver tissues, while fish fed synbiotics showed regular, normal, and protected histopathological images. Our results indicated that dietary synbiotics ameliorated histopathological damages in DMT-exposed tilapia through alleviation of oxidative stress and inflammation as well as enhancing the immunity. View Full-Text
Keywords: deltamethrin; synbiotic; Nile tilapia; histopathology; inflammation; suboptimal temperature deltamethrin; synbiotic; Nile tilapia; histopathology; inflammation; suboptimal temperature
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MDPI and ACS Style

Gewaily, M.S.; Abdo, S.E.; Moustafa, E.M.; AbdEl-kader, M.F.; Abd El-Razek, I.M.; El-Sharnouby, M.; Alkafafy, M.; Raza, S.H.A.; El Basuini, M.F.; Van Doan, H.; Dawood, M.A.O. Dietary Synbiotics Can Help Relieve the Impacts of Deltamethrin Toxicity of Nile Tilapia Reared at Low Temperatures. Animals 2021, 11, 1790. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11061790

AMA Style

Gewaily MS, Abdo SE, Moustafa EM, AbdEl-kader MF, Abd El-Razek IM, El-Sharnouby M, Alkafafy M, Raza SHA, El Basuini MF, Van Doan H, Dawood MAO. Dietary Synbiotics Can Help Relieve the Impacts of Deltamethrin Toxicity of Nile Tilapia Reared at Low Temperatures. Animals. 2021; 11(6):1790. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11061790

Chicago/Turabian Style

Gewaily, Mahmoud S., Safaa E. Abdo, Eman M. Moustafa, Marwa F. AbdEl-kader, Ibrahim M. Abd El-Razek, Mohamed El-Sharnouby, Mohamed Alkafafy, Sayed H.A. Raza, Mohammed F. El Basuini, Hien Van Doan, and Mahmoud A.O. Dawood 2021. "Dietary Synbiotics Can Help Relieve the Impacts of Deltamethrin Toxicity of Nile Tilapia Reared at Low Temperatures" Animals 11, no. 6: 1790. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11061790

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