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Review

Genomic Characterization of Antimicrobial Resistance in Food Chain and Livestock-Associated Salmonella Species

1
Discipline of Genetics, School of Life Sciences, College of Agriculture, Engineering and Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Private Bag X54001, Durban 4000, South Africa
2
Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Medicine, University of Sharjah, Sharjah 27272, United Arab Emirates
3
Zoonosis Science Center, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology, Uppsala University, Uppsala SE 751 23, Sweden
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: María Teresa Tejedor-Junco
Animals 2021, 11(3), 872; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11030872
Received: 15 January 2021 / Revised: 8 March 2021 / Accepted: 8 March 2021 / Published: 18 March 2021
In the era of the COVID-19 global pandemic, antimicrobial resistance is looming as an imminent threat and challenge to human public health. Antimicrobial resistance is a major global threat of increasing concern to human and animal health. It also has implications for both food safety and food security and the economic well-being of millions of humans. Among other zoonotic infectious diseases, antimicrobial resistance in food chain and livestock-associated pathogens such as Salmonella is of great concern. In the present study, the genomic characterization of antimicrobial resistance in food chain and livestock-associated Salmonella was summarized. Several antimicrobial resistance determinants were reported in Salmonella isolated from food chain animals and livestock. Monitoring of antimicrobial resistance in Salmonella in livestock and food chain animals through genomic characterization is significant to control and protect humans from the threat of antimicrobial resistance. Salmonella, a foodborne zoonotic enterobacterium species can transmit antimicrobial resistance from the microbiome of animals to humans. This study summarizes the genomic characterization of antimicrobial resistance in Salmonella species with special focus on resistance against carbapenems and colistin which are the last resort antibiotics used against infections caused by multidrug resistant bacteria. The present review aims to draw attention to prudent use of antibiotics, a good example of the One Health concept.
The rising trend of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) by foodborne bacteria is a public health concern as these pathogens are easily transmitted to humans through the food chain. Non-typhoid Salmonella spp. is one of the leading foodborne pathogens which infect humans worldwide and is associated with food and livestock. Due to the lack of discovery of new antibiotics and the pressure exerted by antimicrobial resistance in the pharmaceutical industry, this review aimed to address the issue of antibiotic use in livestock which leads to AMR in Salmonella. Much attention was given to resistance to carbapenems and colistin which are the last-line antibiotics used in cases of multi drug resistant bacterial infections. In the present review, we highlighted data published on antimicrobial resistant Salmonella species and serovars associated with livestock and food chain animals. The importance of genomic characterization of carbapenem and colistin resistant Salmonella in determining the relationship between human clinical isolates and food animal isolates was also discussed in this review. Plasmids, transposons, and insertion sequence elements mediate dissemination of not only AMR genes but also genes for resistance to heavy metals and disinfectants, thus limiting the therapeutic options for treatment and control of Salmonella. Genes for resistance to colistin (mcr-1 to mcr-9) and carbapenem (blaVIM-1, blaDNM-1, and blaNDM-5) have been detected from poultry, pig, and human Salmonella isolates, indicating food animal-associated AMR which is a threat to human public health. Genotyping, plasmid characterization, and phylogenetic analysis is important in understanding the epidemiology of livestock-related Salmonella so that measures of preventing foodborne threats to humans can be improved. View Full-Text
Keywords: antimicrobial resistance; Enterobacteriacae; Salmonella; foodborne; food chain; livestock zoonosis; mcr-1; carbapenem; colistin; food animals; genotyping; plasmid; humans; resistance; One Health antimicrobial resistance; Enterobacteriacae; Salmonella; foodborne; food chain; livestock zoonosis; mcr-1; carbapenem; colistin; food animals; genotyping; plasmid; humans; resistance; One Health
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MDPI and ACS Style

Mthembu, T.P.; Zishiri, O.T.; El Zowalaty, M.E. Genomic Characterization of Antimicrobial Resistance in Food Chain and Livestock-Associated Salmonella Species. Animals 2021, 11, 872. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11030872

AMA Style

Mthembu TP, Zishiri OT, El Zowalaty ME. Genomic Characterization of Antimicrobial Resistance in Food Chain and Livestock-Associated Salmonella Species. Animals. 2021; 11(3):872. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11030872

Chicago/Turabian Style

Mthembu, Thobeka P., Oliver T. Zishiri, and Mohamed E. El Zowalaty. 2021. "Genomic Characterization of Antimicrobial Resistance in Food Chain and Livestock-Associated Salmonella Species" Animals 11, no. 3: 872. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11030872

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