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Article

Contactless Video-Based Heart Rate Monitoring of a Resting and an Anesthetized Pig

1
Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven (KU LEUVEN), 3001 Leuven, Belgium
2
Institute of Animal Welfare Science (ITT), University of Veterinary Medicine (Vetmeduni) Vienna, A-1210 Vienna, Austria
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USDA-ARS, Livestock Behaviour Research Unit, West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA
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Institute of Animal Hygiene, Animal Welfare and Farm Animal Behaviour, University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, 30625 Hannover, Germany
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Institute for Laboratory Animal Science and Central Animal Facility, Hannover Medical School, 30625 Hannover, Germany
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College of Engineering/Jiangsu Province Engineering Lab for Modern Facility Agriculture Technology & Equipment, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210031, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Gareth Pearce
Animals 2021, 11(2), 442; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11020442
Received: 21 January 2021 / Revised: 29 January 2021 / Accepted: 3 February 2021 / Published: 8 February 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Measuring the Sustainability of Precision Livestock Farming)
Contactless physiological monitoring can be important for animal health and well-being. The current study investigated whether heart rate in pigs can be extracted automatically from videos without disturbing the pig and showed that this was possible with 4.69 beats per minute in mean absolute error. The study also tested different body regions and found that the abdomen was a better region to measure heart rate from videos compared to the front leg or the neck. However, future studies are needed that include videos with different light conditions, different housing systems and multiple pigs to enable real-time on-farm monitoring of heart rate from videos.
Heart rate (HR) is a vital bio-signal that is relatively easy to monitor with contact sensors and is related to a living organism’s state of health, stress and well-being. The objective of this study was to develop an algorithm to extract HR (in beats per minute) of an anesthetized and a resting pig from raw video data as a first step towards continuous monitoring of health and welfare of pigs. Data were obtained from two experiments, wherein the pigs were video recorded whilst wearing an electrocardiography (ECG) monitoring system as gold standard (GS). In order to develop the algorithm, this study used a bandpass filter to remove noise. Then, a short-time Fourier transform (STFT) method was tested by evaluating different window sizes and window functions to accurately identify the HR. The resulting algorithm was first tested on videos of an anesthetized pig that maintained a relatively constant HR. The GS HR measurements for the anesthetized pig had a mean value of 71.76 bpm and standard deviation (SD) of 3.57 bpm. The developed algorithm had 2.33 bpm in mean absolute error (MAE), 3.09 bpm in root mean square error (RMSE) and 67% in HR estimation error below 3.5 bpm (PE3.5). The sensitivity of the algorithm was then tested on the video of a non-anaesthetized resting pig, as an animal in this state has more fluctuations in HR than an anaesthetized pig, while motion artefacts are still minimized due to resting. The GS HR measurements for the resting pig had a mean value of 161.43 bpm and SD of 10.11 bpm. The video-extracted HR showed a performance of 4.69 bpm in MAE, 6.43 bpm in RMSE and 57% in PE3.5. The results showed that HR monitoring using only the green channel of the video signal was better than using three color channels, which reduces computing complexity. By comparing different regions of interest (ROI), the region around the abdomen was found physiologically better than the face and front leg parts. In summary, the developed algorithm based on video data has potential to be used for contactless HR measurement and may be applied on resting pigs for real-time monitoring of their health and welfare status, which is of significant interest for veterinarians and farmers. View Full-Text
Keywords: heart rate monitoring; contactless video; single-channel signal; short-time Fourier transform; pig health and welfare heart rate monitoring; contactless video; single-channel signal; short-time Fourier transform; pig health and welfare
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MDPI and ACS Style

Wang, M.; Youssef, A.; Larsen, M.; Rault, J.-L.; Berckmans, D.; Marchant-Forde, J.N.; Hartung, J.; Bleich, A.; Lu, M.; Norton, T. Contactless Video-Based Heart Rate Monitoring of a Resting and an Anesthetized Pig. Animals 2021, 11, 442. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11020442

AMA Style

Wang M, Youssef A, Larsen M, Rault J-L, Berckmans D, Marchant-Forde JN, Hartung J, Bleich A, Lu M, Norton T. Contactless Video-Based Heart Rate Monitoring of a Resting and an Anesthetized Pig. Animals. 2021; 11(2):442. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11020442

Chicago/Turabian Style

Wang, Meiqing; Youssef, Ali; Larsen, Mona; Rault, Jean-Loup; Berckmans, Daniel; Marchant-Forde, Jeremy N.; Hartung, Joerg; Bleich, André; Lu, Mingzhou; Norton, Tomas. 2021. "Contactless Video-Based Heart Rate Monitoring of a Resting and an Anesthetized Pig" Animals 11, no. 2: 442. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11020442

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