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Article

Volatile Organic Compound Profiles Associated with Microbial Development in Feedlot Pellets Inoculated with Bacillus amyloliquefaciens H57 Probiotic

1
School of Veterinary Science, The University of Queensland, Gatton, QLD 4343, Australia
2
Faculty of Animal Science, Vietnam National University of Agriculture, Hanoi 131000, Vietnam
3
School of Agriculture and Food Sciences, The University of Queensland, Gatton, QLD 4343, Australia
4
Ridley AgriProducts Pty Ltd., Toowong, QLD 4066, Australia
5
Queensland Alliance for Agriculture and Food Innovation, The University of Queensland, St. Lucia, QLD 4069, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Xuezhao Sun and Rongzhen Zhong
Animals 2021, 11(11), 3227; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11113227
Received: 10 October 2021 / Revised: 9 November 2021 / Accepted: 10 November 2021 / Published: 11 November 2021
Our study aimed to confirm that the probiotic, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain H57 (H57), manufactured into grain-rich stockfeed pellets, would help maintain the various types of odours of the pellets during an extended storage. Pellets treated with (H57) or without (control, C) were stored either at room temperature or at 5 °C over 3 months. The odours were identified in the pellets, stored at 0, 1, 2 and 3 months, by a gas analysis technique. The change of odour types was greatest in the C pellets stored for 3 months at room temperature (CA3) than all other pellet treatments. The odour types of the H57 pellets aged 2 or 3 months at room temperature were similar to that of C pellets aged 1 or 2 months. Nine odour types of microbial origin were related to the change observed in CA3. These odour types have been previously identified in grains spoiled by mould and thus deserve further evaluation as indicators of the types of mould against which H57 protects as a feed inoculum. These results suggest that H57 can help to maintain the odour of stockfeed pellets, by reducing the rate of microbial spoilage during storage.
Mould and bacterial contamination releases microbial volatile organic compounds (mVOCs), causing changes in the odour profile of a feed. Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain H57 (H57) has the potential ability to inhibit microbial growth in animal feeds. This study tested the hypothesis that H57 influences the odour profile of stored feedlot pellets by impeding the production of mVOCs. The emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of un-inoculated pellets and those inoculated with H57, stored either at ambient temperature (mean 22 °C) or at 5 °C, was monitored at 0, 1, 2, and 3 months by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Forty VOCs were identified in all the pellet samples analysed, 24 of which were potentially of microbial and 16 of non-microbial origin. A score plot of the principal component analysis (PCA) showed that the VOC profiles of the pellets stored at ambient temperature changed more rapidly over the 3 months than those stored at 5 °C, and that change was greater in the un-inoculated pellets when compared to the inoculated ones. The bi-plot and correlation loading plots of the PCA indicated that the separation of the un-inoculated pellets from the other treatments over the 3 months was primarily due to nine mVOCs. These mVOCs have been previously identified in grains spoiled by fungi, and could be considered potential markers of the types of fungi that H57 can protect pellets against. These data indicate the ability of H57 to maintain the odour profile and freshness of concentrated feed pellets. This protective influence can be detected as early as 3 months into ambient temperature storage. View Full-Text
Keywords: probiotic; Bacillus amyloliquefaciens H57; volatile organic compounds; microbial volatile organic compounds; microbial development; feedlot pellets probiotic; Bacillus amyloliquefaciens H57; volatile organic compounds; microbial volatile organic compounds; microbial development; feedlot pellets
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ngo, T.T.; Dart, P.; Callaghan, M.; Klieve, A.; McNeill, D. Volatile Organic Compound Profiles Associated with Microbial Development in Feedlot Pellets Inoculated with Bacillus amyloliquefaciens H57 Probiotic. Animals 2021, 11, 3227. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11113227

AMA Style

Ngo TT, Dart P, Callaghan M, Klieve A, McNeill D. Volatile Organic Compound Profiles Associated with Microbial Development in Feedlot Pellets Inoculated with Bacillus amyloliquefaciens H57 Probiotic. Animals. 2021; 11(11):3227. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11113227

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ngo, Thi Thuy, Peter Dart, Matthew Callaghan, Athol Klieve, and David McNeill. 2021. "Volatile Organic Compound Profiles Associated with Microbial Development in Feedlot Pellets Inoculated with Bacillus amyloliquefaciens H57 Probiotic" Animals 11, no. 11: 3227. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11113227

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