Next Article in Journal
Usefulness of Selected Acute-Phase Proteins in the Postsurgical Monitoring of Arthroscopy and Splint Bone Removal in Horses
Previous Article in Journal
Factors Associated with Fatality in Ontario Thoroughbred Racehorses: 2003–2015
Article

Spatiotemporal Analysis of West Nile Virus Epidemic in South Banat District, Serbia, 2017–2019

1
Department of Infectious Animal Diseases and Diseases of Bees, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Belgrade, Bulevar Oslobođenja 18, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia
2
Veterinary Specialist Institute Pancevo, Novoseljanski Put 33, 13000 Pancevo, Serbia
3
Scientific Veterinary Institute Novi Sad, Rumenacki Put 20, 21000 Novi Sad, Serbia
4
Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Belgrade, Bulevar Oslobođenja 18, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia
5
Scientific Veterinary Institute of Serbia, Janisa Janulisa 14 Street, 11107 Belgrade, Serbia
6
Faculty of Medicine, Institute of Epidemiology, Belgrade University, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia
7
Department of Functional Foods Development, Wroclaw University of Environmental and Life Sciences, Chelmonskiego Street 37, 51-630 Wroclaw, Poland
8
Directorate of National Reference Laboratories, Batajnicki Drum 10, 11080 Zemun, Serbia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Fathiah Zakham, Tarja Sironen and Pacifique Ndishimye
Animals 2021, 11(10), 2951; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11102951
Received: 7 September 2021 / Revised: 5 October 2021 / Accepted: 9 October 2021 / Published: 13 October 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Animal Infectious Diseases and Zoonoses)
West Nile fever is an arthropod-borne viral disease that is transmitted from birds to humans and animals by mosquitoes. Humans may develop a severe disease, which sometimes can be fatal. At the end of the 20th century, the first outbreaks of West Nile fever among humans in urban environments in Eastern Europe and the United States were reported. The epidemics were characterized by the neurological form of the disease with a fatal outcome. Since the first outbreak of the disease in Serbia, the highest number of cases occurred in 2018. West Nile fever spread is driven by location and time, which means nearby locations and periods have similar features. Recognition of patterns of spread of the disease has the potential to facilitate the mosquito control program and disease prevention. This study aimed to examine the geographical and temporal similarities of registered cases during the epidemics in the period 2017–2019 in South Banat District, Serbia. We identified the following factors as crucial for the prediction of possible outbreaks: the presence of virus in natural reservoirs, mosquito abundance; precipitation, high water level of rivers followed by a consequent sudden decrease of precipitation and withdrawal of rivers into the main bed, and favorable temperatures.
West Nile virus (WNV) is an arthropod-born pathogen, which is transmitted from wild birds through mosquitoes to humans and animals. At the end of the 20th century, the first West Nile fever (WNF) outbreaks among humans in urban environments in Eastern Europe and the United States were reported. The disease continued to spread to other parts of the continents. In Serbia, the largest number of WNV-infected people was recorded in 2018. This research used spatial statistics to identify clusters of WNV infection in humans and animals in South Banat County, Serbia. The occurrence of WNV infection and risk factors were analyzed using a negative binomial regression model. Our research indicated that climatic factors were the main determinant of WNV distribution and were predictors of endemicity. Precipitation and water levels of rivers had an important influence on mosquito abundance and affected the habitats of wild birds, which are important for maintaining the virus in nature. We found that the maximum temperature of the warmest part of the year and the annual temperature range; and hydrographic variables, e.g., the presence of rivers and water streams were the best environmental predictors of WNF outbreaks in South Banat County. View Full-Text
Keywords: West Nile virus; mosquitoes; sentinel animals; spatial analysis; GIS West Nile virus; mosquitoes; sentinel animals; spatial analysis; GIS
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Radojicic, S.; Zivulj, A.; Petrovic, T.; Nisavic, J.; Milicevic, V.; Sipetic-Grujicic, S.; Misic, D.; Korzeniowska, M.; Stanojevic, S. Spatiotemporal Analysis of West Nile Virus Epidemic in South Banat District, Serbia, 2017–2019. Animals 2021, 11, 2951. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11102951

AMA Style

Radojicic S, Zivulj A, Petrovic T, Nisavic J, Milicevic V, Sipetic-Grujicic S, Misic D, Korzeniowska M, Stanojevic S. Spatiotemporal Analysis of West Nile Virus Epidemic in South Banat District, Serbia, 2017–2019. Animals. 2021; 11(10):2951. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11102951

Chicago/Turabian Style

Radojicic, Sonja, Aleksandar Zivulj, Tamas Petrovic, Jakov Nisavic, Vesna Milicevic, Sandra Sipetic-Grujicic, Dusan Misic, Malgorzata Korzeniowska, and Slavoljub Stanojevic. 2021. "Spatiotemporal Analysis of West Nile Virus Epidemic in South Banat District, Serbia, 2017–2019" Animals 11, no. 10: 2951. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11102951

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop