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Review

Potential Effects of Delphinidin-3-O-Sambubioside and Cyanidin-3-O-Sambubioside of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. on Ruminant Meat and Milk Quality

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Posgrado en Producción Animal, Departamento de Zootecnia, Universidad Autónoma Chapingo, Carretera México-Texcoco km 38.5, Texcoco 56230, Estado de México, Mexico
2
Centro Nacional de Investigación Disciplinaria Agricultura Familiar (CENID AF), Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Forestales, Agrícolas y Pecuarias (INIFAP), Carretera Lagos de Moreno-Jalisco km 8.5, Ojuelos de Jalisco 47540, Jalisco, Mexico
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Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia, Universidad de Colima, Autopista Colima-Manzanillo km 40, Tecomán 28100, Colima, Mexico
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Departamento de Arte y Empresa, División de Ingenierías Campus Irapuato-Salamanca, Universidad de Guanajuato, Carretera Salamanca-Valle de Santiago km 3.5 + 1.8, Salamanca 36885, Guanajuato, Mexico
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Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia, Universidad Autónoma de México-Xochimilco, Calzada del Hueso 1100, Coapa, Villa Quietud, Coyoacán 04960, Ciudad de Mexico, Mexico
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Instituto Tecnológico El Llano Aguascalientes (ITEL), Tecnológico Nacional de México (TecNM), Carretera Aguascalientes-S.L.P. km 18.5, El Llano 20330, Aguascalientes, Mexico
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Facultad de Veterinaria y Zootecnia, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México, Toluca 50295, Estado de Mexico, Mexico
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Adam Cieślak, Amlan Kumar Patra, Małgorzata Szumacher-Strabel and Zora Váradyová
Animals 2021, 11(10), 2827; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11102827
Received: 14 September 2021 / Accepted: 23 September 2021 / Published: 28 September 2021
Hibiscus sabdariffa (HS) calyxes are widely used as nutraceutical supplements in humans; however, stalks, leaves, and seeds are considered as agriculture by-products. Including HS by-products in animal feeding could reduce economic costs and environmental problems, and due to their bioactive compounds, could even improve the quality of meat and milk. However, although HS antioxidants have not been tested enough in ruminants, comparison with other by-products rich in polyphenols allows for hypothesizing on the potential effects of including HS by-products and calyxes in nutrition, animal performance, and meat and milk quality. Antioxidants of HS might affect ruminal fiber degradability, fermentation patterns, fatty acids biohydrogenation (BH), and reduce the methane emissions. After antioxidants cross into the bloodstream and deposit into ruminants’ milk and meat, they increase the quality of fatty acids, the antioxidant activity, and the shelf-life stability of dairy products and meat, which leads to positive effects in consumers’ health. In other animals, the specific anthocyanins of HS have improved blood pressure, which leads to positive clinical and chemicals effects, and those could affect some productive variables in ruminants. The HS by-products rich in polyphenols and anthocyanins can improve fatty acid quality and reduce the oxidative effects on the color, odor, and flavor of milk products and meat.
The objective was to review the potential effects of adding anthocyanin delphinidin-3-O-sambubioside (DOS) and cyanidin-3-O-sambubioside (COS) of HS in animal diets. One hundred and four scientific articles published before 2021 in clinics, pharmacology, nutrition, and animal production were included. The grains/concentrate, metabolic exigency, and caloric stress contribute to increasing the reactive oxygen species (ROS). COS and DOS have antioxidant, antibacterial, antiviral, and anthelmintic activities. In the rumen, anthocyanin might obtain interactions and/or synergisms with substrates, microorganisms, and enzymes which could affect the fiber degradability and decrease potential methane (CH4) emissions; since anthocyanin interferes with ruminal fatty acids biohydrogenation (BH), they can increase the n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), linoleic acid (LA), and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in milk and meat, as well as improving their quality. Anthocyanins reduce plasma oxidation and can be deposited in milk and meat, increasing antioxidant activities. Therefore, the reduction of the oxidation of fats and proteins improves shelf-life. Although studies in ruminants are required, COS and DOS act as inhibitors of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACEi) and rennin expression, regulating the homeostatic control and possibly the milk yield and body weight. By-products of HS contain polyphenols as calyces with positive effects on the average daily gain and fat meat quality. View Full-Text
Keywords: anthocyanins; cyanidin-3-O-sambubioside; delphinidin-3-O-sambubioside; Hibiscus sabdariffa L.; fat milk and meat quality; milk and meat production; ruminant nutrition anthocyanins; cyanidin-3-O-sambubioside; delphinidin-3-O-sambubioside; Hibiscus sabdariffa L.; fat milk and meat quality; milk and meat production; ruminant nutrition
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MDPI and ACS Style

Lazalde-Cruz, R.; Miranda-Romero, L.A.; Tirado-González, D.N.; Carrillo-Díaz, M.I.; Medina-Cuéllar, S.E.; Mendoza-Martínez, G.D.; Lara-Bueno, A.; Tirado-Estrada, G.; Salem, A.Z.M. Potential Effects of Delphinidin-3-O-Sambubioside and Cyanidin-3-O-Sambubioside of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. on Ruminant Meat and Milk Quality. Animals 2021, 11, 2827. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11102827

AMA Style

Lazalde-Cruz R, Miranda-Romero LA, Tirado-González DN, Carrillo-Díaz MI, Medina-Cuéllar SE, Mendoza-Martínez GD, Lara-Bueno A, Tirado-Estrada G, Salem AZM. Potential Effects of Delphinidin-3-O-Sambubioside and Cyanidin-3-O-Sambubioside of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. on Ruminant Meat and Milk Quality. Animals. 2021; 11(10):2827. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11102827

Chicago/Turabian Style

Lazalde-Cruz, Rosalba, Luis Alberto Miranda-Romero, Deli Nazmín Tirado-González, María Isabel Carrillo-Díaz, Sergio Ernesto Medina-Cuéllar, Germán David Mendoza-Martínez, Alejandro Lara-Bueno, Gustavo Tirado-Estrada, and Abdelfattah Z. M. Salem. 2021. "Potential Effects of Delphinidin-3-O-Sambubioside and Cyanidin-3-O-Sambubioside of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. on Ruminant Meat and Milk Quality" Animals 11, no. 10: 2827. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11102827

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