Potential Effects of Delphinidin-3-O-Sambubioside and Cyanidin-3-O-Sambubioside of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. on Ruminant Meat and Milk Quality
Posgrado en Producción Animal, Departamento de Zootecnia, Universidad Autónoma Chapingo, Carretera México-Texcoco km 38.5, Texcoco 56230, Estado de México, Mexico
Centro Nacional de Investigación Disciplinaria Agricultura Familiar (CENID AF), Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Forestales, Agrícolas y Pecuarias (INIFAP), Carretera Lagos de Moreno-Jalisco km 8.5, Ojuelos de Jalisco 47540, Jalisco, Mexico
Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia, Universidad de Colima, Autopista Colima-Manzanillo km 40, Tecomán 28100, Colima, Mexico
Departamento de Arte y Empresa, División de Ingenierías Campus Irapuato-Salamanca, Universidad de Guanajuato, Carretera Salamanca-Valle de Santiago km 3.5 + 1.8, Salamanca 36885, Guanajuato, Mexico
Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia, Universidad Autónoma de México-Xochimilco, Calzada del Hueso 1100, Coapa, Villa Quietud, Coyoacán 04960, Ciudad de Mexico, Mexico
Instituto Tecnológico El Llano Aguascalientes (ITEL), Tecnológico Nacional de México (TecNM), Carretera Aguascalientes-S.L.P. km 18.5, El Llano 20330, Aguascalientes, Mexico
Facultad de Veterinaria y Zootecnia, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México, Toluca 50295, Estado de Mexico, Mexico
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Adam Cieślak, Amlan Kumar Patra, Małgorzata Szumacher-Strabel and Zora Váradyová
Received: 14 September 2021
Accepted: 23 September 2021
Published: 28 September 2021
Hibiscus sabdariffa (HS) calyxes are widely used as nutraceutical supplements in humans; however, stalks, leaves, and seeds are considered as agriculture by-products. Including HS by-products in animal feeding could reduce economic costs and environmental problems, and due to their bioactive compounds, could even improve the quality of meat and milk. However, although HS antioxidants have not been tested enough in ruminants, comparison with other by-products rich in polyphenols allows for hypothesizing on the potential effects of including HS by-products and calyxes in nutrition, animal performance, and meat and milk quality. Antioxidants of HS might affect ruminal fiber degradability, fermentation patterns, fatty acids biohydrogenation (BH), and reduce the methane emissions. After antioxidants cross into the bloodstream and deposit into ruminants’ milk and meat, they increase the quality of fatty acids, the antioxidant activity, and the shelf-life stability of dairy products and meat, which leads to positive effects in consumers’ health. In other animals, the specific anthocyanins of HS have improved blood pressure, which leads to positive clinical and chemicals effects, and those could affect some productive variables in ruminants. The HS by-products rich in polyphenols and anthocyanins can improve fatty acid quality and reduce the oxidative effects on the color, odor, and flavor of milk products and meat.