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Maternal Origins and Haplotype Diversity of Seven Russian Goat Populations Based on the D-loop Sequence Variability

1
L.K. Ernst Federal Research Center for Animal Husbandry, Dubrovitzy Estate, Podolsk District, Moscow Region, 142132 Podolsk, Russia
2
Russian State Agrarian University—Moscow Timiryazev Agricultural Academy, 127550 Moscow, Russia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Animals 2020, 10(9), 1603; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10091603
Received: 4 August 2020 / Revised: 2 September 2020 / Accepted: 7 September 2020 / Published: 9 September 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Genetic Diversity in Livestock and Companion Animals)
Russia has diverse specifically selected and multipurpose goat resources. However, the origin of the local goats is still enigmatic. In this study, we sequenced and analyzed mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) fragments of seven Russian local goat populations to provide the first insight into their maternal lineage.
The territory of modern Russia lies on the crossroads of East and West and covers various geographical environments where diverse groups of local goats originated. In this work, we present the first study on the maternal origin of Russian local goats, including Altai Mountain (n = 9), Dagestan Downy (n = 18), Dagestan Local (n = 12), Dagestan Milk (n = 15), Karachaev (n = 21), Orenburg (n = 10), and Soviet Mohair (n = 7) breeds, based on 715 bp D-loop mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences. Saanen goats (n = 5) were used for comparison. Our findings reveal a high haplotype (HD = 0.843–1.000) and nucleotide diversity (π = 0.0112–0.0261). A total of 59 haplotypes were determined in the Russian goat breeds, in which all differed from the haplotypes of the Saanen goats. The haplotypes identified in Altai Mountain, Orenburg, Soviet Mohair, and Saanen goats were breed specific. Most haplotypes (56 of 59) were clustered together with samples belonging to haplogroup A, which was in accordance with the global genetic pattern of maternal origin seen in most goats worldwide. The haplotypes that were grouped together with rare haplogroups D and G were found in the Altai Mountain breed and haplogroup C was detected in the Soviet Mohair breed. Thus, our findings revealed that local goats might have been brought to Russia via various migration routes. In addition, haplotype sharing was found in aboriginal goat populations from overlapping regions, which might be useful information for their official recognition status. View Full-Text
Keywords: goat; livestock; mtDNA; local breeds; haplogroup; phylogeny goat; livestock; mtDNA; local breeds; haplogroup; phylogeny
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Deniskova, T.; Bakoev, N.; Dotsev, A.; Selionova, M.; Zinovieva, N. Maternal Origins and Haplotype Diversity of Seven Russian Goat Populations Based on the D-loop Sequence Variability. Animals 2020, 10, 1603.

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