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Open AccessArticle

Effects of High Forage/Concentrate Diet on Volatile Fatty Acid Production and the Microorganisms Involved in VFA Production in Cow Rumen

1
College of Animal Science and Technology, Qingdao agricultural university, No. 700 of Changcheng Road, Qingdao 266000, China
2
College of Animal Science and Technology, Northeast Agricultural University, No. 600 of Changjiang Road, Harbin 150030, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Animals 2020, 10(2), 223; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10020223
Received: 15 January 2020 / Revised: 23 January 2020 / Accepted: 28 January 2020 / Published: 30 January 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feeding Cattle for Health Improvement)
The rumen is well known as a natural bioreactor for highly efficient degradation of fibers, and rumen microbes play an important role on fiber degradation. Carbohydrates are fermented by a variety of bacteria in the rumen and transformed into volatile fatty acids (VFAs) by the corresponding enzymes. However, the content of forage in the diet affects the metabolism of cellulose degradation and VFA production. Therefore, we combine metabolism and metagenomics to explore the effects of High forage/concentrate diets and sampling time on enzymes and microorganisms involved in the metabolism of fiber and VFA in cow rumen. This study showed that propionate formation via the succinic pathway, in which succinate CoA synthetase (EC 6.2.1.5) and propionyl CoA carboxylase (EC 2.8.3.1) were key enzymes. Butyrate formation via the succinic pathway, in which phosphate butyryltransferase (EC 2.3.1.19), butyrate kinase (EC 2.7.2.7) and pyruvate ferredoxin oxidoreductase (EC 1.2.7.1) are the important enzymes. The microorganisms are mainly affected by diet and sampling time.
: The objectives of this study were to investigate the difference in the mechanism of VFAs production combined with macrogenome technology under different forage-to-concentrate ratios and sampling times. Six ruminally cannulated Holstein cows were used in a randomized complete block design. The high forage (HF) and high concentrate (HC) diets contained 70 and 35% dietary forage, respectively. The results showed that pH was affected by sampling time, at 4 h after feeding had lower value. Excepted for acetate, the VFAs was increased with forage decreased. Propionate formation via the succinic pathway, in which succinate CoA synthetase (EC 6.2.1.5) and propionyl CoA carboxylase (EC 2.8.3.1) were key enzymes, and significantly higher in HC treatment than in HF treatment, Selenomonas, Ruminobacter, Prevotella, and Clostridium were the main microorganism that encodes these key enzymes. Butyrate formation via the succinic pathway, in which phosphate butyryltransferase (EC 2.3.1.19), butyrate kinase (EC 2.7.2.7) and pyruvate ferredoxin oxidoreductase (EC 1.2.7.1) are the important enzymes, Prevotella and Bacteroides played important role in encodes these key enzymes. This research gave a further explanation on the metabolic pathways of VFAs, and microorganisms involved in VFAs production under different F:C ration, which could further reveal integrative information of rumen function.
Keywords: metagenomics; fiber decomposition; volatile fatty acid production; fibrinolytic bacteria; gene expression metagenomics; fiber decomposition; volatile fatty acid production; fibrinolytic bacteria; gene expression
MDPI and ACS Style

Wang, L.; Zhang, G.; Li, Y.; Zhang, Y. Effects of High Forage/Concentrate Diet on Volatile Fatty Acid Production and the Microorganisms Involved in VFA Production in Cow Rumen. Animals 2020, 10, 223.

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