: The objectives of this study were to investigate the difference in the mechanism of VFAs production combined with macrogenome technology under different forage-to-concentrate ratios and sampling times. Six ruminally cannulated Holstein cows were used in a randomized complete block design. The high forage (HF) and high concentrate (HC) diets contained 70 and 35% dietary forage, respectively. The results showed that pH was affected by sampling time, at 4 h after feeding had lower value. Excepted for acetate, the VFAs was increased with forage decreased. Propionate formation via the succinic pathway, in which succinate CoA synthetase (EC 22.214.171.124) and propionyl CoA carboxylase (EC 126.96.36.199) were key enzymes, and significantly higher in HC treatment than in HF treatment, Selenomonas, Ruminobacter, Prevotella, and Clostridium were the main microorganism that encodes these key enzymes. Butyrate formation via the succinic pathway, in which phosphate butyryltransferase (EC 188.8.131.52), butyrate kinase (EC 184.108.40.206) and pyruvate ferredoxin oxidoreductase (EC 220.127.116.11) are the important enzymes, Prevotella and Bacteroides played important role in encodes these key enzymes. This research gave a further explanation on the metabolic pathways of VFAs, and microorganisms involved in VFAs production under different F:C ration, which could further reveal integrative information of rumen function.
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