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Open AccessArticle

The Impact of Targeted Trap–Neuter–Return Efforts in the San Francisco Bay Area

1
Independent Researcher, 4758 Ridge Road, #409, Cleveland, OH 44144, USA
2
Best Friends Animal Society, 5001 Angel Canyon Road, Kanab, UT 84741, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Animals 2020, 10(11), 2089; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10112089
Received: 30 September 2020 / Revised: 31 October 2020 / Accepted: 7 November 2020 / Published: 11 November 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Animal Welfare Policies and Practices)
Substantial and sustained reductions in community cat populations associated with trap–neuter–return (TNR) programs have been documented in a variety of locations, including in the northeastern, midwestern, and southeastern United States, as well as Australia. The present study adds to this growing body of evidence by examining the impact of a TNR program on a population of community cats living on a two-mile section of a pedestrian trail adjacent to the San Francisco Bay. An initial population of 175 cats declined by 99.4% over the 16-year program period. Of the 258 total cats enrolled between 2004 and 2020, only one remained at the end of the program period. The results of the present study corroborate previous research findings.
Recently, a growing collection of evidence that associates trap–neuter–return (TNR) programs with substantial and sustained reductions in community cat populations across a variety of environments has emerged. Peer-reviewed studies emanating from the northeastern, midwestern, and southeastern United States, as well as Australia, document such reductions. The present study expands upon this body of evidence by examining the impact of a long-term TNR program on a population of community cats residing on a pedestrian trail adjacent to an oceanic bay located on the West Coast of the U.S. A population of 175 community cats, as determined by an initial census, living on a 2-mile section of the San Francisco Bay Trail declined by 99.4% over a 16-year period. After the conclusion of the initial count, the presence of cats was monitored as part of the TNR program’s daily feeding regimen. Of the 258 total cats enrolled in the program between 2004 and 2020, only one remained at the end of the program period. These results are consistent with those documented at the various sites of other long-term TNR programs. View Full-Text
Keywords: trap–neuter–return (TNR); stray cats; feral cats; free-roaming cats; community cats; nonlethal management; population reductions trap–neuter–return (TNR); stray cats; feral cats; free-roaming cats; community cats; nonlethal management; population reductions
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MDPI and ACS Style

Spehar, D.D.; Wolf, P.J. The Impact of Targeted Trap–Neuter–Return Efforts in the San Francisco Bay Area. Animals 2020, 10, 2089.

AMA Style

Spehar DD, Wolf PJ. The Impact of Targeted Trap–Neuter–Return Efforts in the San Francisco Bay Area. Animals. 2020; 10(11):2089.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Spehar, Daniel D.; Wolf, Peter J. 2020. "The Impact of Targeted Trap–Neuter–Return Efforts in the San Francisco Bay Area" Animals 10, no. 11: 2089.

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