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Article

Vaginal Microbiota Is Stable throughout the Estrous Cycle in Arabian Mares

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Research Group-Microbiological Agents Associated with Animal Reproduction (ProVaginBio), Department of Animal Production and Health, Veterinary Public Health and Food Science and Technology (PASAPTA), Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cardenal Herrera-CEU University, CEU Universities, 46115 Alfara del Patriarca, Spain
2
Microomics Systems S.L, 08003 Barcelona, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Animals 2020, 10(11), 2020; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10112020
Received: 16 September 2020 / Revised: 23 October 2020 / Accepted: 28 October 2020 / Published: 3 November 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Veterinary Endocrinology and Reproduction in the Mare)
Knowing which bacteria dominate vaginal microbiota and its variation throughout the cycle is important to study how to prevent reproductive diseases. In women, vaginal microbiota is dominated by Lactobacillus but this does not happen in other animals. Little is known about equine vaginal microbiota. The aim of this study was to describe the dynamics of equine vaginal microbiota during the ovarian cycle. Eight healthy adult Arabian mares were used to characterize vaginal microbiota by standard microbiologic and metagenomic procedures. The abundance of Lactobacillus was < 2% by both methods, meaning that equine vaginal microbiota was not dominated by these bacteria. Dominant bacteria included other genera such as Porphyromonas and Campylobacter among others. No changes in vaginal microbiota composition were found, suggesting that equine vaginal microbiota was stable throughout the ovarian cycle.
Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) dominate human vaginal microbiota and inhibit pathogen proliferation. In other mammals, LAB do not dominate vaginal microbiota, however shifts of dominant microorganisms occur during ovarian cycle. The study objectives were to characterize equine vaginal microbiota in mares by culture-dependent and independent methods and to describe its variation in estrus and diestrus. Vaginal swabs from 8 healthy adult Arabian mares were obtained in estrus and diestrus. For culture-dependent processing, bacteria were isolated on Columbia blood agar (BA) and Man Rogosa Sharpe (MRS) agar. LAB comprised only 2% of total bacterial isolates and were not related to ovarian phases. For culture-independent processing, V3/V4 variable regions of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene were amplified and sequenced using Illumina Miseq. The diversity and composition of the vaginal microbiota did not change during the estrous cycle. Core equine vaginal microbiome consisted of Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria at the phylum level. At the genus level it was defined by Porphyromonas, Campylobacter, Arcanobacterium, Corynebacterium, Streptococcus, Fusobacterium, uncultured Kiritimatiaellae and Akkermansia. Lactobacillus comprised only 0.18% of the taxonomic composition in estrus and 0.37% in diestrus. No differences in the relative abundance of the most abundant phylum or genera were observed between estrus and diestrus samples. View Full-Text
Keywords: horses; equine; microbiome; metagenomic; estrus; diestrus; reproductive; vagina horses; equine; microbiome; metagenomic; estrus; diestrus; reproductive; vagina
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MDPI and ACS Style

Barba, M.; Martínez-Boví, R.; Quereda, J.J.; Mocé, M.L.; Plaza-Dávila, M.; Jiménez-Trigos, E.; Gómez-Martín, Á.; González-Torres, P.; Carbonetto, B.; García-Roselló, E. Vaginal Microbiota Is Stable throughout the Estrous Cycle in Arabian Mares. Animals 2020, 10, 2020. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10112020

AMA Style

Barba M, Martínez-Boví R, Quereda JJ, Mocé ML, Plaza-Dávila M, Jiménez-Trigos E, Gómez-Martín Á, González-Torres P, Carbonetto B, García-Roselló E. Vaginal Microbiota Is Stable throughout the Estrous Cycle in Arabian Mares. Animals. 2020; 10(11):2020. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10112020

Chicago/Turabian Style

Barba, Marta, Rebeca Martínez-Boví, Juan J. Quereda, María L. Mocé, María Plaza-Dávila, Estrella Jiménez-Trigos, Ángel Gómez-Martín, Pedro González-Torres, Belén Carbonetto, and Empar García-Roselló. 2020. "Vaginal Microbiota Is Stable throughout the Estrous Cycle in Arabian Mares" Animals 10, no. 11: 2020. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10112020

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