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Open AccessArticle

Swim Bladder Disorders in Koi Carp (Cyprinus carpio)

1
Department of Veterinary Medical Sciences—Alma Mater Studiorum University of Bologna, 40064 Bologna, Italy
2
DAP Tim Barbe and an der Steenstraat 45, 1750 Lennik (Vlaams-Brabant), Belgium
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Animals 2020, 10(11), 1974; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10111974
Received: 22 September 2020 / Revised: 21 October 2020 / Accepted: 26 October 2020 / Published: 28 October 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fish Pathology)
Physostomous fish like cyprinids possess a swim bladder with a pneumatic duct in connection with the foregut, permitting the gas to enter into or be released through the alimentary canal. Due to this peculiar anatomic structure, bacteria and mycetes can potentially ascend the duct and colonize the swim-bladder. Besides inflammatory reactions, other swim bladder disorders include fluid accumulation, collapse, overinflation, and herniation. These swim bladder disorders and consequent buoyancy problems can be encountered in ornamental fish. Nonetheless, details about comprehensive disease management are poorly represented in the koi carp (Cyprinus carpio) literature. A clinical–pathological and microbiological investigation was performed in nine koi carp presenting abdominal swelling and abnormal swimming behavior. Swim bladder deformation, accumulation of clear fluid within the swim bladder, chronic aerocystitis, and bacteria identified as Aeromonas hydrophila/caviae group and Shewanella xiamenensis were the main findings. A wide range of sensitivity was shown to antimicrobials for isolated S. xiamemensis strains. Accordingly, antibiotic treatment succeeded in the full recovery of three cases in which S. xiamemensis infection was detected. Along with these results, the contribution of this study to the scientific field is to document a multidisciplinary clinical–pathological and microbiological investigation of these animals, which are rightly considered pets and should be similarly approached.
Swim bladder disorders and consequent buoyancy problems are encountered in ornamental fish, including koi carp. Nevertheless, beyond clinical and pharmacological management, they are largely underdiagnosed. In this study, nine koi carp showing abdominal swelling and abnormal swimming behavior were investigated. Clinical approach, varying from case to case, included ultrasonographic and X-ray investigations, bacteriological analysis of the collected fluid, antimicrobial susceptibility pattern, and possibly histological analysis. Diagnostic imaging, corroborating gross examination, documented swim bladder deformation/dislocation and serous fluid within the swim bladder chambers of most animals. Bacteria belonging to the Aeromonas hydrophila/caviae group and Shewanella xiamenensis were identified. S. xiamenensis strains showed a sensibility to all tested molecules except for one strain, which was resistant to tetracycline and cyprofloxacin. Antibiotic treatment succeeded in the full recovery of three cases in which S. xiamemensis infection was detected. Chronic aerocystitis was histologically documented where tissue was available. The swim bladder histopathological findings highlighted a chronic process that had compromised the quality of life of the animals. A multidisciplinary clinical–pathological and microbiological approach is highly suggested to recognize swim bladder conditions as early as possible, aiming to drive medical intervention and raising the chances of fish survival. View Full-Text
Keywords: ornamental fish; koi carp; cyprinid; swim bladder disorders; diagnostic imaging; microbiology; histopathology ornamental fish; koi carp; cyprinid; swim bladder disorders; diagnostic imaging; microbiology; histopathology
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MDPI and ACS Style

Sirri, R.; Mandrioli, L.; Zamparo, S.; Errani, F.; Volpe, E.; Tura, G.; Barbé, T.; Ciulli, S. Swim Bladder Disorders in Koi Carp (Cyprinus carpio). Animals 2020, 10, 1974.

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