Dietary Supplementation of Inorganic, Organic, and Fatty Acids in Pig: A Review
Department of Animal Sciences, Food and Nutrition (DIANA), Faculty of Agriculture, Food and Environmental Science, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Via Emilia Parmense 84, 29100 Piacenza, Italy
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Received: 14 August 2020 / Revised: 9 September 2020 / Accepted: 18 September 2020 / Published: 25 September 2020
The role of acids in pig feed strategies has changed from feed acidifier and preservative to growth promoter and antibiotics substitute. Since the 2006 European banning of growth promoters in the livestock sector, several feed additives have been tested with the goal of identifying molecules with the greatest beneficial antimicrobial, growth-enhancing, or disease-preventing abilities. These properties have been identified among various acids, ranging from inexpensive inorganic acids to organic and fatty acids, and these have been widely used in pig production. Acids are mainly used during the weaning period, which is considered one of the most critical phases in pig farming, as well as during gestation, lactation, and fattening. Such supplementation generally yields improved growth performance and increased feed efficiency; these effects are the consequences of different modes of action acting on the microbiome composition, gut mucosa morphology, enzyme activity, and animal energy metabolism.