Naturally Produced Lovastatin Modifies the Histology and Proteome Profile of Goat Skeletal Muscle
Institute of Tropical Agriculture and Food Security, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang 43400, Malaysia
Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang 43400, Malaysia
Faculty of Agriculture, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang 43400, Malaysia
Faculty of Sustainable Agriculture, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Sandakan 90000, Malaysia
Agricultural Biotechnology Research Institute of Iran, Mashad 844, Iran
Rumen Microbiology, AgResearch, Palmerston North 4442, New Zealand
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 23 September 2019 / Revised: 11 November 2019 / Accepted: 12 November 2019 / Published: 31 December 2019
Enteric methane formation in ruminants is one of the major contributors to climate change. Among the potential strategies, the supplementation of naturally produced lovastatin has been reported as one of the promising approaches for the mitigation of methane emissions. Nevertheless, statins have been associated with the development of muscle-related adverse effects which could affect the health and wellbeing of the animals. We have reported previously that supplementation of naturally produced lovastatin at 2 and 4 mg/kg body weight (BW), reduced methane emissions in goats without adversely affecting rumen fermentation and animal performance, except at higher level of lovastatin (6 mg/kg BW). However, the effects of lovastatin on the skeletal muscle in goats and the associated mechanisms have not been studied. Hence, the present study aimed to examine the effects of lovastatin on the histology of the goat skeletal muscle from the above study and to further elucidate the related underlying biochemistry processes. Histology analysis observed marked degeneration in the longissimus thoracis et lumborum muscle of goats supplemented with 6 mg lovastatin/kg BW. Our preliminary label-free proteomics analysis identified approximately 400 proteins in total, a number of which were differentially expressed, which are involved in energy metabolism and may have contributed to the observed skeletal muscle damage above 4 mg/kg BW.