Metabolomic Profile of Primary Turkey and Rat Hepatocytes and Two Cell Lines after Chloramphenicol Exposure
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, National Veterinary Research Institute, Al. Partyzantów 57, 24-100 Puławy, Poland
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 8 November 2019 / Revised: 18 December 2019 / Accepted: 19 December 2019 / Published: 21 December 2019
The use of cell cultures can be an important alternative for animal experiments. Therefore, it seems reasonable to use in vitro models to compare the liver metabolism of a drug in different animal species. Chloramphenicol is an effective broad-spectrum antibiotic used in human and pets. The toxicity of chloramphenicol is complex and differs among animal species mainly depending on the biotransformation. The purpose of this study was to assess chloramphenicol metabolism on its cytotoxicity in primary turkey and rat hepatocyte cultures, also in human hepatoma (HepG2) cells and nonhepatic, Balb/c 3T3 fibroblasts. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of differences in chloramphenicol metabolism in primary turkey and rat hepatocyte cultures. The two metabolites of the drug were detected in turkey and rat hepatocyte cultures. The amount of one metabolite of chloramphenicol was closely related to the cytotoxicity of the drug. The primary turkey and rat hepatocyte cultures were more sensitive to chloramphenicol than HepG2 cells and Balb/c 3T3 fibroblasts. The primary hepatocyte cultures represent valuable tools with which to study the biotransformation of xenobiotics and determine species differences in their metabolism and toxicity.