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Open AccessArticle

Metabolomic Profile of Primary Turkey and Rat Hepatocytes and Two Cell Lines after Chloramphenicol Exposure

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, National Veterinary Research Institute, Al. Partyzantów 57, 24-100 Puławy, Poland
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Animals 2020, 10(1), 30; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10010030
Received: 8 November 2019 / Revised: 18 December 2019 / Accepted: 19 December 2019 / Published: 21 December 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Alternative Methods in Biological Assays)
The use of cell cultures can be an important alternative for animal experiments. Therefore, it seems reasonable to use in vitro models to compare the liver metabolism of a drug in different animal species. Chloramphenicol is an effective broad-spectrum antibiotic used in human and pets. The toxicity of chloramphenicol is complex and differs among animal species mainly depending on the biotransformation. The purpose of this study was to assess chloramphenicol metabolism on its cytotoxicity in primary turkey and rat hepatocyte cultures, also in human hepatoma (HepG2) cells and nonhepatic, Balb/c 3T3 fibroblasts. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of differences in chloramphenicol metabolism in primary turkey and rat hepatocyte cultures. The two metabolites of the drug were detected in turkey and rat hepatocyte cultures. The amount of one metabolite of chloramphenicol was closely related to the cytotoxicity of the drug. The primary turkey and rat hepatocyte cultures were more sensitive to chloramphenicol than HepG2 cells and Balb/c 3T3 fibroblasts. The primary hepatocyte cultures represent valuable tools with which to study the biotransformation of xenobiotics and determine species differences in their metabolism and toxicity.
The purpose of this study was to assess the formation of chloramphenicol metabolites in primary turkey and rat hepatocyte cultures and human hepatoma (HepG2) cells and nonhepatic, Balb/c 3T3 fibroblasts. Additionally, the cytotoxicity of the drug was assessed through three biochemical endpoints: mitochondrial and lysosomal activity and cellular membrane integrity after 24 and 48 h exposure. The two metabolites of the drug, chloramphenicol glucuronide and nitroso-chloramphenicol, were detected to the greatest extent in both primary hepatocyte cultures by liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. Toxic nitroso-chloramphenicol was the main metabolite in the primary turkey hepatocyte cultures, but it was not in the primary rat hepatocyte cultures. The most affected endpoint in turkey and rat hepatocyte cultures was the disintegration of the cellular membrane, but in the cell lines, mitochondrial and lysosomal activities underwent the greatest change. The primary hepatocyte cultures represent valuable tools with which to study the species differences in the biotransformation and toxicity of drugs. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of differences in chloramphenicol metabolism in primary turkey and rat hepatocyte cultures. View Full-Text
Keywords: primary turkey hepatocytes; primary rat hepatocytes; HepG2 cell line; Balb/c 3T3 cell line; chloramphenicol; metabolites; HPLC-MS/MS method; cytotoxicity primary turkey hepatocytes; primary rat hepatocytes; HepG2 cell line; Balb/c 3T3 cell line; chloramphenicol; metabolites; HPLC-MS/MS method; cytotoxicity
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MDPI and ACS Style

Radko, L.; Śniegocki, T.; Sell, B.; Posyniak, A. Metabolomic Profile of Primary Turkey and Rat Hepatocytes and Two Cell Lines after Chloramphenicol Exposure. Animals 2020, 10, 30. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10010030

AMA Style

Radko L, Śniegocki T, Sell B, Posyniak A. Metabolomic Profile of Primary Turkey and Rat Hepatocytes and Two Cell Lines after Chloramphenicol Exposure. Animals. 2020; 10(1):30. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10010030

Chicago/Turabian Style

Radko, Lidia; Śniegocki, Tomasz; Sell, Bartosz; Posyniak, Andrzej. 2020. "Metabolomic Profile of Primary Turkey and Rat Hepatocytes and Two Cell Lines after Chloramphenicol Exposure" Animals 10, no. 1: 30. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10010030

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