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Article

Assessment of Phycocyanin Extraction from Cyanidium caldarium by Spark Discharges, Compared to Freeze-Thaw Cycles, Sonication, and Pulsed Electric Fields

Leibniz Institute for Plasma Science and Technology, Felix-Hausdorff Straße 2, 17489 Greifswald, Germany
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Carole Llewellyn and Michele S. Stanley
Microorganisms 2021, 9(7), 1452; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9071452
Received: 22 June 2021 / Revised: 2 July 2021 / Accepted: 4 July 2021 / Published: 6 July 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Products from Microalgae and Cyanobacteria)
Phycocyanin is a blue colored pigment, synthesized by several species of cyanobacteria and red algae. Besides the application as a food-colorant, the pigmented protein is of high interest as a pharmaceutically and nutritionally valuable compound. Since cyanobacteria-derived phycocyanin is thermolabile, red algae that are adapted to high temperatures are an interesting source for phycocyanin extraction. Still, the extraction of high quality phycocyanin from red algae is challenging due to the strong and rigid cell wall. Since standard techniques show low yields, alternative methods are needed. Recently, spark discharges have been shown to gently disintegrate microalgae and thereby enable the efficient extraction of susceptible proteins. In this study, the applicability of spark discharges for phycocyanin extraction from the red alga Cyanidium caldarium was investigated. The efficiency of 30 min spark discharges was compared with standard treatment protocols, such as three times repeated freeze-thaw cycles, sonication, and pulsed electric fields. Input energy for all physical methods were kept constant at 11,880 J to ensure comparability. The obtained extracts were evaluated by photometric and fluorescent spectroscopy. Highest extraction yields were achieved with sonication (53 mg/g dry weight (dw)) and disintegration by spark discharges (4 mg/g dw) while neither freeze-thawing nor pulsed electric field disintegration proved effective. The protein analysis via LC-MS of the former two extracts revealed a comparable composition of phycobiliproteins. Despite the lower total concentration of phycocyanin after application of spark discharges, the purity in the raw extract was higher in comparison to the extract attained by sonication. View Full-Text
Keywords: phycocyanin; red algae; spark discharges; extraction; Cyanidium caldarium phycocyanin; red algae; spark discharges; extraction; Cyanidium caldarium
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MDPI and ACS Style

Sommer, M.-C.; Balazinski, M.; Rataj, R.; Wenske, S.; Kolb, J.F.; Zocher, K. Assessment of Phycocyanin Extraction from Cyanidium caldarium by Spark Discharges, Compared to Freeze-Thaw Cycles, Sonication, and Pulsed Electric Fields. Microorganisms 2021, 9, 1452. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9071452

AMA Style

Sommer M-C, Balazinski M, Rataj R, Wenske S, Kolb JF, Zocher K. Assessment of Phycocyanin Extraction from Cyanidium caldarium by Spark Discharges, Compared to Freeze-Thaw Cycles, Sonication, and Pulsed Electric Fields. Microorganisms. 2021; 9(7):1452. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9071452

Chicago/Turabian Style

Sommer, Marie-Christine, Martina Balazinski, Raphael Rataj, Sebastian Wenske, Juergen F. Kolb, and Katja Zocher. 2021. "Assessment of Phycocyanin Extraction from Cyanidium caldarium by Spark Discharges, Compared to Freeze-Thaw Cycles, Sonication, and Pulsed Electric Fields" Microorganisms 9, no. 7: 1452. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9071452

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