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Review

Gram-Negative Bacteria Holding Together in a Biofilm: The Acinetobacter baumannii Way

1
Center for Advanced Studies and Technology (CAST), Department of Medical, Oral and Biotechnological Sciences, Service of Clinical Microbiology, “G. d’Annunzio” University of Chieti-Pescara, 66100 Chieti, Italy
2
Department of Public Health and Infectious Diseases, Sapienza University of Rome, 00185 Rome, Italy
3
Dani Di Giò Foundation-Onlus, 00193 Rome, Italy
4
Research Laboratories, Bambino Gesù Children’s Hospital, IRCCS, 00146 Rome, Italy
5
Department of Infectious Diseases, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, 00161 Rome, Italy
6
Laboratory Affiliated to Institute Pasteur Italia-Cenci Bolognetti Foundation, Department of Public Health and Infectious Diseases, Sapienza University of Rome, 00185 Rome, Italy
7
Department of Human Sciences and Promotion of the Quality of Life, San Raffaele Open University, IRCCS, 00166 Rome, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Contributed equally to this work.
Contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editor: Ute Römling
Microorganisms 2021, 9(7), 1353; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9071353
Received: 28 May 2021 / Revised: 14 June 2021 / Accepted: 18 June 2021 / Published: 22 June 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Clinical Implications of Microbial Biofilm)
Bacterial biofilms are a serious public-health problem worldwide. In recent years, the rates of antibiotic-resistant Gram-negative bacteria associated with biofilm-forming activity have increased worrisomely, particularly among healthcare-associated pathogens. Acinetobacter baumannii is a critically opportunistic pathogen, due to the high rates of antibiotic resistant strains causing healthcare-acquired infections (HAIs). The clinical isolates of A. baumannii can form biofilms on both biotic and abiotic surfaces; hospital settings and medical devices are the ideal environments for A. baumannii biofilms, thereby representing the main source of patient infections. However, the paucity of therapeutic options poses major concerns for human health infections caused by A. baumannii strains. The increasing number of multidrug-resistant A. baumannii biofilm-forming isolates in association with the limited number of biofilm-eradicating treatments intensify the need for effective antibiofilm approaches. This review discusses the mechanisms used by this opportunistic pathogen to form biofilms, describes their clinical impact, and summarizes the current and emerging treatment options available, both to prevent their formation and to disrupt preformed A. baumannii biofilms. View Full-Text
Keywords: Acinetobacter baumannii; biofilm; multidrug-resistant; prevention; treatment Acinetobacter baumannii; biofilm; multidrug-resistant; prevention; treatment
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MDPI and ACS Style

Pompilio, A.; Scribano, D.; Sarshar, M.; Di Bonaventura, G.; Palamara, A.T.; Ambrosi, C. Gram-Negative Bacteria Holding Together in a Biofilm: The Acinetobacter baumannii Way. Microorganisms 2021, 9, 1353. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9071353

AMA Style

Pompilio A, Scribano D, Sarshar M, Di Bonaventura G, Palamara AT, Ambrosi C. Gram-Negative Bacteria Holding Together in a Biofilm: The Acinetobacter baumannii Way. Microorganisms. 2021; 9(7):1353. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9071353

Chicago/Turabian Style

Pompilio, Arianna, Daniela Scribano, Meysam Sarshar, Giovanni Di Bonaventura, Anna T. Palamara, and Cecilia Ambrosi. 2021. "Gram-Negative Bacteria Holding Together in a Biofilm: The Acinetobacter baumannii Way" Microorganisms 9, no. 7: 1353. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9071353

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