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Article

Probiotic Propionibacterium freudenreichii MJ2 Enhances Osteoblast Differentiation and Mineralization by Increasing the OPG/RANKL Ratio

by 1, 1 and 1,2,3,*
1
Department of Integrated Biomedical and Life Sciences, Graduate School, Korea University, Seoul 02841, Korea
2
School of Biosystems and Biomedical Sciences, Korea University, Seoul 02841, Korea
3
Department of Laboratory Medicine, Korea University Guro Hospital, Seoul 08308, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Denis Roy
Microorganisms 2021, 9(4), 673; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9040673
Received: 3 March 2021 / Revised: 17 March 2021 / Accepted: 22 March 2021 / Published: 24 March 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Food Microbiology)
Osteoblast differentiation is important for the development of bone and the maintenance of bone density. Propionibacterium freudenreichii is a probiotic with an anti-inflammatory property. The aim of this study was to investigate the enhancement effect of P. freudenreichii MJ2 (MJ2) isolated from raw milk on osteoblast differentiation, mineralization, and its signaling pathway. For in vitro and in vivo experiments, human fetal osteoblastic cell line hFOB 1.19 and an ovariectomized rat model were used, respectively. Expression levels of genes and proteins related to osteoblast differentiation and mineralization were measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and Western blotting, respectively. Alizarin red S staining was performed to measure osteoblast mineralization. Heat-killed MJ2 (hkMJ2)-treated cells showed significantly increased osteoblast differentiation via an increase in the osteoprotegerin (OPG)/receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL) ratio and significantly increased osteoblast mineralization by stimulating the expression of bone morphogenetic protein 2 and runt-related transcription factor 2. Additionally, oral administration of live or heat-killed MJ2 to ovariectomized rats inhibited osteoporosis-induced bone loss. Specifically, surface proteins isolated from MJ2 promoted osteoblast differentiation and mineralization. In conclusion, MJ2 enhanced osteoblast differentiation and mineralization through the OPG/RANKL signaling pathway and the effective component of MJ2 might be its surface proteins. View Full-Text
Keywords: Propionibacterium freudenreichii; osteoblast mineralization; osteoprotegerin; receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand; surface proteins Propionibacterium freudenreichii; osteoblast mineralization; osteoprotegerin; receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand; surface proteins
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MDPI and ACS Style

Yeom, J.; Ma, S.; Lim, Y.-H. Probiotic Propionibacterium freudenreichii MJ2 Enhances Osteoblast Differentiation and Mineralization by Increasing the OPG/RANKL Ratio. Microorganisms 2021, 9, 673. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9040673

AMA Style

Yeom J, Ma S, Lim Y-H. Probiotic Propionibacterium freudenreichii MJ2 Enhances Osteoblast Differentiation and Mineralization by Increasing the OPG/RANKL Ratio. Microorganisms. 2021; 9(4):673. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9040673

Chicago/Turabian Style

Yeom, Jiah, Seongho Ma, and Young-Hee Lim. 2021. "Probiotic Propionibacterium freudenreichii MJ2 Enhances Osteoblast Differentiation and Mineralization by Increasing the OPG/RANKL Ratio" Microorganisms 9, no. 4: 673. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9040673

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