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Incidence of Histoplasmosis in a Cohort of People with HIV: From Estimations to Reality

Asociación de Salud Integral, Guatemala City 01001, Guatemala
Global Action Fund for Fungal Infections, 01564 Geneva, Switzerland
Clínica Familiar “Luis Ángel García”, Hospital General San Juan de Dios, Guatemala City 01001, Guatemala
The National Aspergillosis Centre, University Hospital of South Manchester, Manchester M23 9LT, UK
Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, School of Medicine, The University of Manchester, Manchester M23 9LT, UK
Mycology Reference Laboratory, National Centre for Microbiology, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, 28222 Madrid, Spain
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
This work was stated by the authors on behalf of Fungired.
Academic Editors: Raquel Sabino and Cristina Veríssimo
Microorganisms 2021, 9(12), 2596;
Received: 10 November 2021 / Revised: 6 December 2021 / Accepted: 11 December 2021 / Published: 16 December 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Epidemiology and Diagnosis of Invasive Fungal Infections)
Among people with HIV, histoplasmosis represents an important cause of mortality. Previous studies provided estimates of the disease incidence. Here, we compared those estimates with the results obtained from a screening program implemented in Guatemala, which included histoplasmosis detection for people with HIV. To compare the results of this program with previous estimations, a literature search was performed and reports concerning histoplasmosis incidence were analyzed. The screening program enrolled 6366 patients. The overall histoplasmosis incidence in the screening program was 7.4%, which was almost double that estimated in previous studies. From 2017 to 2019, the screening program showed an upward trend in histoplasmosis cases from 6.5% to 8.8%. Histoplasmosis overall mortality among those who were newly HIV diagnosed showed a decrease at 180 days from 32.8% in 2017 to 21.2% in 2019. The screening approach using rapid diagnostic assays detects histoplasmosis cases more quickly, allowing a specific treatment to be administered, which decreases the mortality of the disease. Therefore, the use of these new techniques, especially in endemic areas of histoplasmosis, must be implemented. View Full-Text
Keywords: histoplasmosis; antigen; HIV; opportunistic infections histoplasmosis; antigen; HIV; opportunistic infections
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MDPI and ACS Style

Medina, N.; Rodriguez-Tudela, J.L.; Aguirre, L.; Salazar, L.R.; Gamboa, O.; Bonilla, O.; Pérez, J.C.; Arathoon, E.; Denning, D.W.; Alastruey-Izquierdo, A. Incidence of Histoplasmosis in a Cohort of People with HIV: From Estimations to Reality. Microorganisms 2021, 9, 2596.

AMA Style

Medina N, Rodriguez-Tudela JL, Aguirre L, Salazar LR, Gamboa O, Bonilla O, Pérez JC, Arathoon E, Denning DW, Alastruey-Izquierdo A. Incidence of Histoplasmosis in a Cohort of People with HIV: From Estimations to Reality. Microorganisms. 2021; 9(12):2596.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Medina, Narda, Juan L. Rodriguez-Tudela, Luis Aguirre, Luis R. Salazar, Osmar Gamboa, Oscar Bonilla, Juan C. Pérez, Eduardo Arathoon, David W. Denning, and Ana Alastruey-Izquierdo. 2021. "Incidence of Histoplasmosis in a Cohort of People with HIV: From Estimations to Reality" Microorganisms 9, no. 12: 2596.

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