Next Article in Journal
Can Alkyl Quaternary Ammonium Cations Substitute H2O2 in Controlling Cyanobacterial Blooms—Laboratory and Mesocosm Studies
Next Article in Special Issue
Dynamics of Plasmatic Levels of Pro- and Anti-Inflammatory Cytokines in HIV-Infected Individuals with M. tuberculosis Co-Infection
Previous Article in Journal
Anti-Virulence Properties of Coridothymus capitatus Essential Oil against Pseudomonas aeruginosa Clinical Isolates from Cystic Fibrosis Patients
Previous Article in Special Issue
Recovery of Innate Immune Cells and Persisting Alterations in Adaptive Immunity in the Peripheral Blood of Convalescent Plasma Donors at Eight Months Post SARS-CoV-2 Infection
 
 
Article

Elevated Anti-SARS-CoV-2 Antibodies and IL-6, IL-8, MIP-1β, Early Predictors of Severe COVID-19

1
Group of Virology and Pathogenesis, Galicia Sur Health Research Institute (IIS Galicia Sur), SERGAS-UVigo, 36213 Vigo, Spain
2
Rare Diseases & Pediatric Medicine Research Group, Galicia Sur Health Research Institute (IIS Galicia Sur), SERGAS-Uvigo, 36213 Vigo, Spain
3
Clinic Unit of Infectious Diseases, Microbiology and Preventive Medicine, Institute of Biomedicine of Seville, IBiS, Virgen del Rocío University Hospital/CSIC/University of Seville, 41013 Seville, Spain
4
INTERFIBIO Consolidated Research Group, Departament d’ Enginyeria Quimica, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, 43003 Tarragona, Spain
5
Methodology and Statistics Unit, Galicia Sur Health Research Institute (IIS Galicia Sur)-Complexo Hospitalario Universitario de Vigo, SERGAS-UVigo, 36213 Vigo, Spain
6
Infectious Diseases Unit, Department of Internal Medicine, Complexo Hospitalario Universitario de Vigo, IIS Galicia Sur, SERGAS-UVigo, 36213 Vigo, Spain
7
Microbiology Service, Galicia Sur Health Research Institute (IIS Galicia Sur), SERGAS-Uvigo, 36213 Vigo, Spain
8
Institució Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avançats, 08010 Barcelona, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
On behalf of the Cohort COVID-19 of the Galicia Sur Health Research Institute.
Academic Editors: Pavel Bostik and Shubhada Bopegamage
Microorganisms 2021, 9(11), 2259; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9112259
Received: 8 October 2021 / Revised: 22 October 2021 / Accepted: 22 October 2021 / Published: 29 October 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Virulence of Viruses and Their Interaction with the Immune System)
Viral and host immune kinetics during acute COVID-19 and after remission of acute symptoms need better characterization. SARS-CoV-2 RNA, anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgA, IgM, and IgG antibodies, and proinflammatory cytokines were measured in sequential samples from hospitalized COVID-19 patients during acute infection and six months following diagnosis. Twenty four laboratory confirmed COVID-19 patients with mild/moderate and severe COVID-19 were included. Most were males (83%) with a median age of 61 years. Twenty one percent were admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) and eight of them (33.3%) met the criteria for severe COVID-19 disease. A delay in SARS-CoV-2 levels’ decline during the first six days of follow up, and viral load persistence until month 3 were related to severe COVID-19, but not viral load levels at the diagnosis. Higher levels of anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgA, IgM, IgG and the cytokines IL-6, IL-8 and MIP-1β at the diagnosis time were related to the severe COVID-19 outcome. Higher levels of MIP-1β, IL-1β, MIP-1α and IFN-γ were observed at month 1 and 3 during mild/moderate disease, compared to severe COVID-19. IgG persisted at low levels after six months of diagnosis. In conclusion, higher concentrations of IgA, IgM, and IgG, and IL-6, IL-8 and MIP-1β are identified as early predictors of COVID-19 severity, whereas no significant association is found between baseline SARS-COV-2 viral load and COVID-19 severity. View Full-Text
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; severe COVID-19; anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies; cytokines; viral load SARS-CoV-2; severe COVID-19; anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies; cytokines; viral load
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Codina, H.; Vieitez, I.; Gutierrez-Valencia, A.; Skouridou, V.; Martínez, C.; Patiño, L.; Botero-Gallego, M.; Trujillo-Rodríguez, M.; Serna-Gallego, A.; Muñoz-Muela, E.; Bobillo, M.M.; Pérez, A.; Cabrera-Alvar, J.J.; Crespo, M.; O’Sullivan, C.K.; Ruiz-Mateos, E.; Poveda, E. Elevated Anti-SARS-CoV-2 Antibodies and IL-6, IL-8, MIP-1β, Early Predictors of Severe COVID-19. Microorganisms 2021, 9, 2259. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9112259

AMA Style

Codina H, Vieitez I, Gutierrez-Valencia A, Skouridou V, Martínez C, Patiño L, Botero-Gallego M, Trujillo-Rodríguez M, Serna-Gallego A, Muñoz-Muela E, Bobillo MM, Pérez A, Cabrera-Alvar JJ, Crespo M, O’Sullivan CK, Ruiz-Mateos E, Poveda E. Elevated Anti-SARS-CoV-2 Antibodies and IL-6, IL-8, MIP-1β, Early Predictors of Severe COVID-19. Microorganisms. 2021; 9(11):2259. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9112259

Chicago/Turabian Style

Codina, Helena, Irene Vieitez, Alicia Gutierrez-Valencia, Vasso Skouridou, Cristina Martínez, Lucía Patiño, Mariluz Botero-Gallego, María Trujillo-Rodríguez, Ana Serna-Gallego, Esperanza Muñoz-Muela, María M. Bobillo, Alexandre Pérez, Jorge Julio Cabrera-Alvar, Manuel Crespo, Ciara K. O’Sullivan, Ezequiel Ruiz-Mateos, and Eva Poveda. 2021. "Elevated Anti-SARS-CoV-2 Antibodies and IL-6, IL-8, MIP-1β, Early Predictors of Severe COVID-19" Microorganisms 9, no. 11: 2259. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9112259

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop