Next Article in Journal
Does Gut-Microbiome Interaction Protect against Obesity and Obesity-Associated Metabolic Disorders?
Next Article in Special Issue
Inactivation of Schistosoma Using Low-Temperature Plasma
Previous Article in Journal
Comparative Analysis of Carbohydrate Active Enzymes in the Flammulina velutipes var. lupinicola Genome
Previous Article in Special Issue
Canine Leishmaniasis: Serological Results in Private and Kennel Dogs Tested over a Six-Year Period (2009–2014) in Abruzzo and Molise Regions, Italy
Review

Alternative Invasion Mechanisms and Host Immune Response to Plasmodium vivax Malaria: Trends and Future Directions

1
Biological Sciences, University of North Carolina, Charlotte, NC 28223, USA
2
Ethiopian Public Health Institute, Addis Ababa 1000, Ethiopia
3
Aklilu Lemma Institute of Pathobiology, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa 1000, Ethiopia
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors equally contributed to this work.
Microorganisms 2021, 9(1), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9010015
Received: 25 November 2020 / Revised: 19 December 2020 / Accepted: 21 December 2020 / Published: 23 December 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Epidemiology of Vector-Borne Diseases)
Plasmodium vivax malaria is a neglected tropical disease, despite being more geographically widespread than any other form of malaria. The documentation of P. vivax infections in different parts of Africa where Duffy-negative individuals are predominant suggested that there are alternative pathways for P. vivax to invade human erythrocytes. Duffy-negative individuals may be just as fit as Duffy-positive individuals and are no longer resistant to P.vivax malaria. In this review, we describe the complexity of P. vivax malaria, characterize pathogenesis and candidate invasion genes of P. vivax, and host immune responses to P. vivax infections. We provide a comprehensive review on parasite ligands in several Plasmodium species that further justify candidate genes in P. vivax. We also summarize previous genomic and transcriptomic studies related to the identification of ligand and receptor proteins in P. vivax erythrocyte invasion. Finally, we identify topics that remain unclear and propose future studies that will greatly contribute to our knowledge of P. vivax. View Full-Text
Keywords: Plasmodium vivax; erythrocyte invasion mechanisms; Duffy negative; Africa; immunology; epidemiology Plasmodium vivax; erythrocyte invasion mechanisms; Duffy negative; Africa; immunology; epidemiology
MDPI and ACS Style

Kepple, D.; Pestana, K.; Tomida, J.; Abebe, A.; Golassa, L.; Lo, E. Alternative Invasion Mechanisms and Host Immune Response to Plasmodium vivax Malaria: Trends and Future Directions. Microorganisms 2021, 9, 15. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9010015

AMA Style

Kepple D, Pestana K, Tomida J, Abebe A, Golassa L, Lo E. Alternative Invasion Mechanisms and Host Immune Response to Plasmodium vivax Malaria: Trends and Future Directions. Microorganisms. 2021; 9(1):15. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9010015

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kepple, Daniel, Kareen Pestana, Junya Tomida, Abnet Abebe, Lemu Golassa, and Eugenia Lo. 2021. "Alternative Invasion Mechanisms and Host Immune Response to Plasmodium vivax Malaria: Trends and Future Directions" Microorganisms 9, no. 1: 15. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9010015

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop