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Evolutionary Genetics of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis and HIV-1: “The Tortoise and the Hare”

1
Life and Health Sciences Research Institute (ICVS), School of Medicine, University of Minho, Campus Gualtar, 4710-057 Braga, Portugal
2
ICVS/3B’s-T Government Associate Laboratory, 4710-057 Braga/Guimarães, Portugal
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Microorganisms 2021, 9(1), 147; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9010147
Received: 17 December 2020 / Revised: 24 December 2020 / Accepted: 6 January 2021 / Published: 11 January 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adaptation of Pathogenic Microbes to the Host Environment)
The already enormous burden caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1 (HIV-1) alone is aggravated by co-infection. Despite obvious differences in the rate of evolution comparing these two human pathogens, genetic diversity plays an important role in the success of both. The extreme evolutionary dynamics of HIV-1 is in the basis of a robust capacity to evade immune responses, to generate drug-resistance and to diversify the population-level reservoir of M group viral subtypes. Compared to HIV-1 and other retroviruses, M. tuberculosis generates minute levels of genetic diversity within the host. However, emerging whole-genome sequencing data show that the M. tuberculosis complex contains at least nine human-adapted phylogenetic lineages. This level of genetic diversity results in differences in M. tuberculosis interactions with the host immune system, virulence and drug resistance propensity. In co-infected individuals, HIV-1 and M. tuberculosis are likely to co-colonize host cells. However, the evolutionary impact of the interaction between the host, the slowly evolving M. tuberculosis bacteria and the HIV-1 viral “mutant cloud” is poorly understood. These evolutionary dynamics, at the cellular niche of monocytes/macrophages, are also discussed and proposed as a relevant future research topic in the context of single-cell sequencing. View Full-Text
Keywords: HIV-1; Mycobacterium tuberculosis; evolutionary genetics; lineage; subtype; genetic diversity; tuberculosis; AIDS HIV-1; Mycobacterium tuberculosis; evolutionary genetics; lineage; subtype; genetic diversity; tuberculosis; AIDS
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MDPI and ACS Style

Santos-Pereira, A.; Magalhães, C.; Araújo, P.M.M.; Osório, N.S. Evolutionary Genetics of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis and HIV-1: “The Tortoise and the Hare”. Microorganisms 2021, 9, 147. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9010147

AMA Style

Santos-Pereira A, Magalhães C, Araújo PMM, Osório NS. Evolutionary Genetics of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis and HIV-1: “The Tortoise and the Hare”. Microorganisms. 2021; 9(1):147. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9010147

Chicago/Turabian Style

Santos-Pereira, Ana, Carlos Magalhães, Pedro M.M. Araújo, and Nuno S. Osório 2021. "Evolutionary Genetics of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis and HIV-1: “The Tortoise and the Hare”" Microorganisms 9, no. 1: 147. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9010147

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